A&P Midterm 2

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Metabolism

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122 Terms

1

Metabolism

All of the chemical reactions that occur within the body, reactions that build up and break down molecules

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2

Anabolism

Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy

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3

Dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule

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4

Catabolism

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy

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5

Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

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6

Enzymes

Proteins that increase the rate (catalyze) specific metabolic reactions

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7

Active site

A region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction

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8

Substrate

A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme

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9

Metabolic pathway

Series of linked, enzymatically controlled chemical reactions

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10

Rate-limiting enzyme

An enzyme found early in a metabolic pathway that determines the rate of the pathway

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11

Cofactor

A nonprotein, organic molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme

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12

Denaturation

Loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factors

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13

Excessive heat, radiation, electricity, and pH

Disrupts the rate of reaction of an enzyme and causes it to denature

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14

Oxidation

Loss of electrons

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15

ATP

Main energy source that cells use for most of their work

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16

Glycolysis (anaerobic)

The breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and 2 pyruvic acid

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17

Krebs cycle (aerobic respiration)

Pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl Co-A as it enters the mitochondria, citric acid is the first molecule formed, citric acid is broken down and CO2, 2 ATP, NADH, FADH2 are produced

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18

Electron Transport Chain (aerobic respiration)

NADH and FADH pass off their electrons and go through proteins to pump protons which pump through ATP Synthase to convert protons to ATP. Generates 28 ATP

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19

Takes place in the cytoplasm

Glycolysis

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20

Takes place in the mitochondria

Krebs cycle and Electron Transport Chain

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21

2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH

Products of glycolysis

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22

3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP/ATP

Products of Krebs Cycle

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23

32-34 ATP, 6H2O

Products of Electron Transport Chain

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24

Gene

A sequence of nucleotide bases of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

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25

Pairs with Thymine in DNA

Adenine

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26

Pairs with Adenine in RNA

Uracil

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27

Pairs with Guanine

Cytosine

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28

Genome

Complete set of genetic instructions for an organism

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29

DNA replication

Each new cell copies the original cell's genetic information. Each new DNA molecule consists of one old stand and one new strand

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30

RNA

Transfers genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

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31

Transcription

The process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

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32

Translation

The process whereby genetic information coded in mRNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm and creates a polypeptide chain

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33

tRNA

Type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

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34

Anticodon

Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

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35

RNA polymerase

enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template to create mRNA

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36

Epigenetics

The study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

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37

Mutation

Change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

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38

Substitution mutation

Mutation in which a single base is replaced, potentially altering the gene product

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39

Deletion mutation

Mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are removed from a gene

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40

Insertion mutation

Mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene

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41

Frameshift mutation

Mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

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42

Missense mutation

A nucleotide-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid

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43

Nonsense mutation

Mutation that changes a normal codon into a stop codon

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44

Duplication mutation

a mutation that involves duplication of a region of DNA on the same strand

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45

rRNA

type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes

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46

DNA polymerase

Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

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47

Reversible reaction

A chemical reaction in which the products reform the original reactants

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48

Tight junctions

Close space between cells by fusing cell membranes

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49

Desosomes

Bind cells by forming "spot welds" between cell membranes

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50

Gap junctions

Form tubular channels between cells that allow exchange of substances

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51

Epithelial tissue

Protect, secrete, absorb, excrete, lacks blood cells, cells are tightly packed

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52

Connective tissue

Bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fats, produce blood cell

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53

Muscle tissue

Generate forces of movement

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54

Nervous tissue

Conduct impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception

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55

Simple squamous epithelium

Single layer, flattened cells, filtration, diffusion, osmosis, covers the surface

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Simple cuboidal epithelium

Single layer, cube-shaped cells, secretion and absorption

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Simple columnar epithelium

Single layer, elongated cells, secretion and absorption

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Single layer, elongated and variously-shaped cells, movement of mucus and substances, absorption, secretion

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Stratified squamous epithelium

Many layers, top cells flattened, protection

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Stratified cuboidal epithelium

2 or 3 layers, cube-shaped cells, protection

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Stratified columnar epithelium

Top layer of elongated cells, lower layers of cube-shaped cells, protection, secretion

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Transitional epithelium

Many layers of cube-shaped and elongated cells, stretchability, protection

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63

Merocrine glands

A fluid product released through the cell membrane by exocytosis, sweat glands, salivary glands

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64

Apocrine glands

Cellular product and portions of the free ends of glandular cells pinch off during secretion, mammary glands

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65

Holocrine glands

Disintegrated entire cells filled with secretory products, sebaceous glands

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66

Exocrine glands

Glands that secrete substances outward through a duct

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67

Endocrine glands

Glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream

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68

Areolar connective tissue

Binds organs, fill spaces (beneath skin, surrounds organs)

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69

Adipose tissue

Protects, insulates, stores fat

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70

Reticular connective tissue

Supports, and provides framework of internal organs

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71

Dense regular connective tissue

Withstands great tensile stress with thick collagen fibers when pulling force is applied in one direction tendons, most ligaments

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72

Dense irregular connective tissue

Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength

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73

Elastic connective tissue

Connective tissue made from elastic fibers that allows stretching (found in the lungs, artery walls, vocal cords)

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74

Cartilage

A rigid connect tissue that provides support, frameworks, attachments, and protects underlying tissues

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75

Hyaline Cartilage

Most common type of cartilage; has very fine collagen fibers, found at end of bones, nose, rings of respiratory passages

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Elastic Cartilage

cartilage with abundant elastic fibers; more flexible than hyaline cartilage

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77

Fibrocartilage

A very tough tissue that has many collagen fibers, is a shock absorber for structures

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78

Bone (osseous tissue)

Connective tissue with the matrix hardened by calcium phosphate and other minerals.

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Blood connective tissue

Forms red blood cells, white blood cell, and platelets, defends against disease, clotting

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80

Serious membranes

Lines cavities that don't open to outside and reduce friction between organs and cavity walls

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81

Mucous membranes

Lines the cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body

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82

Skeletal muscle tissue

Voluntary, multi-nucleated, muscle pulls on bones and causes body movements

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83

Smooth muscle tissue

Has no striations, involuntary, spindle-shaped, found in the walls of organs such as stomach

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84

Cardiac muscle tissue

Specialized muscle tissue found only in the heart, involuntary, and striated

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85

Nervous tissue

A tissue that carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body

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86

Stratum corneum

Outermost layer of the epidermis, which consists of flattened, keratinized cells

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87

Stratum lucidum

Clear, transparent layer of the epidermis under the stratum corneum

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88

Stratum granulosum

Beneath the stratum corneum, three to five layers of flattened granular cells that contain shrunken fibers of keratin and shriveled nuclei

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89

Stratum basale

Deepest epidermal layer made of a single row of cells that undergo rapid cell division, includes melanocytes

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90

Dendritic cells

Within the stratum spinosum to protect skin and deeper tissues from pathogen invasion

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91

Melanocytes

Cells that produce melanin

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92

Cutaneous carcinoma

Most common type of skin cancer, affecting light-skinned people

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93

Cutaneous melanoma

Pigmented with melanin, with a variety of colored areas, variegated brown, black, gray or blue

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94

Eumelanin

Produces brown to black pigments in the hair

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95

Pheomelanin

Produces yellow to red pigments in the hair

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96

Melanin

A pigment that absorbs UV radiation from sunlight, protecting skin cells from damage/mutation

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97

Vasodilation

Widening of blood vessels

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98

Vasoconstriction

Narrowing of blood vessels

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99

Sebaceous glands

Holocrine glands and produce oils to keep hair waterproof

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100

Merocrine sweat glands

Secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin to lower body temperature

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