AP GOV

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Amendment Process

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1

Amendment Process

Two Ways: 2/3rds majority in both houses of congress then to States to ratify, or in constitutional conventions (never been used)

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2

Articles of Confederation

Pre-Constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. Limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control money

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3

Block Grants

Money sent to states to fund programs, not specifically allocated

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4

Categorical Grants

Federal grants for specific purposes, often with strings attached.

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5

"Commerce" Clause

Inter-State Commerce Clause of the constitution, allows congress to regulate any trade or commercial (non-goods/trade) related activity that occurs over state lines.

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6

Concurrent Powers

Powers held by both states and federal government- like the ability to collect taxes

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7

Cooperative Federalism

Cooperation among federal, state, & local governments "marble cake" federalism

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8

Delegated Powers

Powers specifically given to the federal government by the constitution

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9

Devolution Revolution

Returning powers to the States that had been given to the federal government, product of Republican party control of gov't

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10

Dual Federalism

A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.

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11

Federalism

System of splitting power between state and federal government

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12

Federalist Papers

Series of essays written by Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution

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13

Full Faith and Credit Clause

Clause in the Constitution (Article 4, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid.

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14

Gibbons v. Ogden

A landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.

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15

The Great Compromise

Created Bicameral legislature, compromise between New Jersey and Virginia plans

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16

Mandate

Requirement from the Federal Gov't to states, can be funded or not

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17

McCulloch v. Maryland

An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. SCOTUS held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.

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18

National Supremacy

Federal government decisions are supreme over State

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19

Necessary and Proper Clause

"Elastic Clause" Gives congress the power to pass any laws "Necessary and Proper" to carrying out it's duties

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20

New Jersey Plan

Equal representation for all states, seen in the Senate

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21

Pluralism

A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.

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22

Popular Sovereignty

All governmental power is derived from the people, therefore the government is responsible ultimately to the people: rule by the people.

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23

Reserved Powers

Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people (10th Amendment)

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24

Shay's Rebellion

Massachusetts Farmers riot and attack a Militia armory, shows weakness of Articles of Confederation because MA Militia can't contain them and no standing army

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25

Virginia Plan

Representation in congress determined by state population, leads to house of reps

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26

Conservative v. Liberal Beliefs

Conservatives: Small Gov't, Low Taxes/Liberal: More federal intervention, Gov't economic intervention

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27

Exit Polls

Polling as people leave voting places to predict winners

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28

Jim Crow Laws

Southern laws to disenfranchise Black Voters and return to some degree of status quo in post civil war South

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29

Motor Voter Laws

allows people to register to vote while applying for or renewing a driver's license (National Voter Registration Act)

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30

Political Culture

An overall set of values widely shared within a society.

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31

Political Efficacy

A belief that you can take part in politics (internal efficacy) or that the government will respond to the citizenry (external efficacy)

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32

Political Participation

The citizenry's level of involvement in the political process, through voting, campaigning etc

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33

Political Socialization

The process by which people develop political attitudes, values, and beliefs.

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34

Political Tolerance

The willingness of people to reasonably tolerant to the opinions and actions of others that are not in accordance with their own.

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35

Random Sample

For Polling: with a truly random sample and neutral questions a poll of ~1500 can gauge the feelings of the nation

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36

Registered v. Eligible Voters

All eligible voters could vote, registered actually will

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37

Sampling Error

The difference between the results of random samples taken at the same time.

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38

Solid South

Term used to describe the domination of post-Civil War southern politics by the Democratic Party

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39

Straw Poll

Not particularly accurate form of polling, IE Ames in Iowa

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40

Suffrage

Right to vote

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41

Ticket Splitting

Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices

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42

Universal Manhood Suffrage

Principle that every man had the right to vote, regardless of whether he owned property.

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43

Voter Turnout

The number of eligible voters who actually vote in an election.

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44

15th Amendment

Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

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45

19th Amendment

Womens Suffrage

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46

26th Amendment

Allows 18 year olds to vote

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47

527 Group

A tax-exempt organization that can engage in election activities based on behalf of causes or interests.

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48

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002

banned soft money contributions to national political parties from corporations and unions; independent expenditures by corporations, labor unions, trade associations, and nonprofit organizations are sharply restricted

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49

Campaign Reform Act of 1974

Created FEC; all contributions over $100 disclosed; no foreign contributions; establishment of PACs - $5,000 per candidate; individual contributions - $1,000 per candidate; presidential elections.

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50

Class Action Lawsuit

filed by one or more people on behalf of a larger group of people who are all affected by the same situation

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51

Closed Primary

Primary where only registered members of a party can vote.

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52

Coattail Effect

The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.

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53

Critical Realigning Election

An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues

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54

Dealignment

Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of Independents.

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55

Divided Government

Partisanship in government, leads to difficulty in passing any legislation

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56

Electoral College

Method of electing presidents

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57

Federal Communications Commission

Government agency that regulates broadcast media. Used to have "Fairness Doctrine" requiring equal coverage for both sides of issue except constitution

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58

Free Rider Problem

People gaining benefits from unions/lobbying groups work without being members

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59

Frontloading

Increased importance of early primaries and Caucuses (esp. Iowa and New Hampshire) leads to states wanting early spots

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60

Gerrymandering

Redistricting to ensure strength of particular seats in congress

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61

Grassroots Lobbying

efforts by groups and associations to influence elected officials indirectly, by arousing their constituents.

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62

Gridlock

State of partisanship where nothing can get done

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63

Incumbent Advantage

Advantage of recognition and assets that help incumbents win reelection

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64

Linkage Institutions

the channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.

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65

Open Primary

A primary where , a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but must vote for candidates of only one party)

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66

Political Action Committee (PAC)

A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations

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67

Presidential Nominating Convention

held by each party the summer before the general presidential election delegates officially vote for presidential nominee formal ratification of party platform

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68

Prior Restraint

government censorship of information before it is published or broadcast

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69

Proportional Representation

Representation in congress based on population

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70

Revolving Door

Congress/Congressional Staff becoming lobbyists and vice versa

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71

Single Member District

An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.

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72

Soft Money

political contributions made in such a way as to avoid the United States regulations for federal election campaigns (as by contributions to a political action committee)

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73

Sound Bite

a brief, memorable comment that can easily be fit into news broadcasts

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74

Straight Ticket (Voting)

Voting for all of one parties candidates

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75

Superdelegate

A party leader or elected official who is given the right to vote at the party's national convention. Superdelegates are not elected at the state level.

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76

Telecommunications Act of 1996

Legislation that overhauled the Federal Communications Act of 1934 by deregulating a range of communications technologies in effort to promote competition in the development and provision of telecommunications services.

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77

Third Party

Non Republican/Democrat party. Serve to influence elections if not win.

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78

Winner-Take-All Electoral System

All electoral votes go to whatever candidate won the state, not proportional.

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79

Bicameral Legislature

Two houses of Congress, Senate and House of Representatives

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80

Bill

A piece of legislation

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81

Caucus

A meeting/discussion

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82

Cloture

End unlimited debate in the senate/Kill a filibuster. Requires 60 votes.

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83

Conference Committee

Temporary joint committee created to reconcile any differences between the two houses' versions of a bill

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84

Discharge Petition

A device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor

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85

Earmark

Dedication of funds in a bill

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86

Filibuster

Use of unlimited debate in Senate to prevent legislation from being voted on, even if it's popular.

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87

Germane Amendments

"Friendly" Amendment

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88

Logrolling

Informal agreements to support eachothers legislation among congresspeople

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89

Majority Leader

Arguably most powerful person in the senate, controls things.

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90

Majority Party

Whatever party holds the most seats in a house of Congress

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91

Markup

Editing a bill

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92

Minority Leader

Has some power, leading member of the minority party

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93

Minority Party

Party that has the minority of seats in a house of congress

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94

Pocket Veto

When the president kills a bill passed during the last 10 days Congress is in session by simply refusing to act on it

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95

Pork Barrel Legislation

Legislation designed to bring funding to projects in a specific congresspersons district, particularly not in overall national interest

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96

President Pro Tempore

Presiding officer of the senate in absence of VP, selected by Majority party

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97

Speaker of the House

Presiding officer of the House, selected by Majority party, significantly more powerful than President Pro Tempore

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98

Standing Committee

A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area

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99

Term Limit

Maximum number of terms an official can serve

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100

Veto

To reject. Can be overcome

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