FTCE - PreK-3 - Developmental Knowledge

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The Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is a mental and social component of development. With the zone of proximal development, a child's learning is achieved with assistance from someone who has a higher level of competence.

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Flash cards of terms and items found on the FTCE PreK-3 Developmental Knowledge test

223 Terms

1

The Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is a mental and social component of development. With the zone of proximal development, a child's learning is achieved with assistance from someone who has a higher level of competence.

Zone of proximal development

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2

The teacher's intent is to assess their reading, writing, and cooperative skills and gauges a child's behavior, skills, readiness levels, and concept formation

Authentic assessment

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3

Five processes supporting the daily routine include planning time, key experiences, work time, clean-up time, and recall time

High/Scope daily plan-do-review sequencing

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4

States are initiating early childhood programs of their own because federal allocations for such programs have done which of the following

Decreased

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5

Gain experience and demonstrate independence in using age-appropriate materials and tools.

Affective domain

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6

Pedagogical Specialist, or an Education Coordinator. That individual works in a Reggio Emilia setting, and coordinates the development of quality educational services with personnel from several schools.

A Pedagogista

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7

A tribunal in which schools and parents resolve their differences by mediation and/or hearings before impartial hearing officers or judges. It is one of the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education ACT (IDEA)

Due process

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8

According to the NAEYC (Assessment of Child Progress) program standard, when should children receive developmental screening to determine their interests and needs?

Three months following program entry

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9

The ability to remember speech sounds

Phonological memory

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10

A sequence of planned instructional events. It includes phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

Systematic instruction

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11

Involves several children playing together for at least ten (10) minutes, sharing the same narrative sequence

Sociodramatic play

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12

Developmental milestone that occurs in infants aged seven (7) to nine (9) months. The concept at that stage is that things which are out of sight continue to exist.

Object permanence

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13

An individual's beliefs about the attributes and capabilities he or she possesses is known as which of the following?

Self-concept

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14

Created in Italy and follows the belief that children learn much better if they are learning from their own interests. It also believes that children should be exposed to real tools and that they thrive when they have access to high quality materials instead of the cheaper materials that are often found in preschool classrooms. Lastly, community support is a very important part of ensuring that the children thrive in their learning environment

Reggio Emilia curriculum

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15

Founded the Waldorf curriculum, which focuses on the whole child. This includes the mental, physical, and spiritual aspects

Steiner

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16

On-the spot, story-like descriptions of child behavior

Anecdotal records

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17

Advocated progressive education techniques

Froebel

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18

According to Vygotsky, children look to others who have already mastered a skill or concept when learning. This might be an adult or a peer. This person is known as which of the following?

More Knowledgeable Other

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19

Motor and cognitive disabilities are caused?

Congenital rubella

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20

According to Frith, which of the following is the first stage of literacy development?

Logographic

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21

What observation scoring tool defines and rates observable criteria from excellent to poor, high to low, etc.?

Rubric

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22

Froebel developed what as part of his educational approach to help children observe and learn to play through the use of their senses.

Occupations

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23

Scheme

Piaget says we form mental constructs/concepts by category or class of things.

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24

Conservation

Piaget says children develop this ability by age 5. Ability to understand objects/substance retain their #, amounts, appearance, shape, configuration changes.

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25

Object permance

Babies develop realization around 8-9 months. Understanding that unseen object still exist.

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26

Viktor Lowenfeld

Named six stages reflecting children art

  1. scribble stage

  2. preschematic stage

  3. schematic stage

  4. dawning realism

  5. pseudorealisitic stage

  6. period of decision stage

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27

Scaffolding

Temporary support that others give learners for achieving tasks. Gradually withdrawn when skill is developed or level of expertise need to complete task. teacher support involving demonstrating, guiding, and teaching.

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Phonemes

Speech sounds

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29

Alphabetic principle

Concept that letters & letter combinations represent speech sounds.

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30

Julian Rotter

"Locus of Control" the place where we attribute causes for outcomes we experience, either externally or internally.

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31

Thematic approach

Selecting several books on the same theme. Thus can enhance memory & in depth comprehension of meanings.

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32

Freud

Personality development & it was psychosexual. He formulate five stages

  1. Oral

  2. Anal

  3. Phallic

  4. Latency

  5. Genital

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33

Freud

Personality are governed by three structure /forces

  1. ID

  2. Ego

  3. Superego

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34

Eric Erikson

Psychosocial. Human development. Nine stages (entire lifespan)

  1. trust vs mistrust

  2. autonomy vs shame/doubt

  3. initiative vs guilt

  4. industry vs inferiority

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35

Lawrence Kohlberg

Developed cognitive development theory. Expanding on Piaget's theory classification /categorization.

  • Pre conventional: egocentric (birth to 9)

  • conventional: socio-centric (9 to adolescence)

  • Post conventional: adulthood

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36

IDEA

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1990 was reauthorize in 1997 (public law 108-446). More access to Gen Ed curriculum & extend collaborative among teacher, other professionals & families.

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37

NCLB

NO Child Left Behind 2001 was reauthorize of ESEA (Elementary & Secondary Education). Accountability and identifying schools/districts needing improvement, performance data include ESE.

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38

IDEIA

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 was an IDEA reauthorization. Connect piece for NCLB & IDEA. Defining & protecting ESE and decrease litigation.

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39

EHA 1975

Education for All Handicapped Children Act/Education for the Handicapped Act. Public law 94-142

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40

EHA 1986

Amendment to EHA. Public law 99-457. Foundation and expanded in 1990 and renamed IDEA which extended to special education to preschoolers 3-5yrs.

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41

Section 504

Rehabilitation Act 1973 Public law 93-112 To ensure disabled people access to federally financed programs. Must have physical /mental impairment that limits major life activities.

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42

ADA

Americans with Disabilities Act. Laws for the public regarding disabled people (not educational services) but was amended in 2009 (ADDA).

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43

Maslow

Humanistic theory of self-actualization. Five levels

  1. physiological needs

  2. security needs

  3. social needs

  4. esteem needs

  5. self actualizing needs

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44

Whole language approach

Children construct their own knowledge through their interactions with their environment. • teacher does not correct children errors.

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45

Effective reading instructions

Big 5 critical areas are: ▪phonemic awareness ▪phonics ▪reading fluency ▪vocabulary development ▪reading comprehension

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46

Language experience approach (LEA)

Connecting students personal life experiences with written printed words 4 steps ¤ children / teacher choose a topic ¤ each child take turn saying a sentence about topic/discussion ¤ teacher reads sentences to confirm accuracy ¤ when done, teacher points and read aloud each word together (echo).

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47

Basal reader approach

Skill-based bottom up approach. Commonly used in schools. It has reading level and end of unit test/assessments. Phonic, vocabulary, picture cards, etc.

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48

DRA

Directed reading activity

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49

DR-TA

Directed reading thinking activity This approach designed to develop critical readers through instruction in group comprehension

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50

Alfred Adler

Psycho analytic theory. Child's birth order is associated with corresponding influences on child's personality & behaviors.

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51

Aesthetic experience

Using art to learn about shapes, color Classification /sensory discrimination

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52

Vygotsky

A learner can complete task that cannot yet complete independently (given some help) calling it Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).

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53

Direct instructions

A behavioral method of teaching. Immediate corrective feedback to learner errors with positive reinforcement. Reciprocal teacher-student feedback "one way" method/teacher focus Small group based on level Teacher follow script instructions /questioning

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54

Friedrich Froebel

Original concept & practice of kindergarten which include play based instructions. Est. In 1837 Self control & sprituality. School role in social development. Curricula include math, language, design,art,health,hygiene, and PE.

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55

Influential education theory

Observation, discovery, play,free,self directed activities help children learn.

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56

Siegfried Engelmann and Bereiter

Confounded program to give intensive instructions to disadvantage preschooler and enhance their cognitive skills which started Project Head Start and Project Follow Through.

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57

Project Follow Through

Created 1967 during President Johnson. This was an extension to Project Head Start : ▪ affective: school achievement ▪basic skills: SW labs, behavior analysis, DI ▪ cognitive: parent ed, TEEM, cognitively oriented curriculum

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58

Constance Kamii

Believe what Piaget's said about children learning. Long term goal is developing children's intellectual, social, and moral autonomy.

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59

Head Start program

3-4 years old. Begin in 1964. Head Start Act in 1981. Revised 2007 reauthorization. Program by US Department of Health and Human Services to give low-income families and children comprehensive services in Health, Nutrition, education, and parental involvement.

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60

Early Head Start program

Birth through three year old. To improve prenatal Health, infant /toddler development, and enhance healthy family functioning parental engagement.

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61

LD

Neurological disorder

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62

Mild intellectual disabilities

Lack curiosity and quiet demeanor.

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63

Profound intellectual disabilities

Remain infantile in abilities and behaviors

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64

CMV infection

Congenital cytomegalovirus. Passes to fetus/mother has asymptomatic

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65

Congenital Rubella

Passed to fetus. Mother is not vaccinated. Baby will have neurological damage/blindness and eye disorder, deafness, heart dects

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66

Congenital toxoplasmosis

Passed to fetus. Mother infected and asymptomatic and parasite from raw or uncooked meat. Vision/hearing loss.

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67

Encephalitis

Brain inflammation by infection

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68

Meningitis

Inflammation of meninges/membranes covering brain caused by viral/bacterial infection

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69

Rett Syndrome

Nervous system disorder can affect expressive language and hand function. Defective protein gene X chromosome 15 missing protein found in Jews.

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70

Tuberous Sclerosis

Genetic mutation. Tumors damaging kidneys, heart,.skin, brain, and central nervous system seizures /developmental delays

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71

Dyslexia

Most common learning disability. Deficiency or inability in reading. Primarily affects reading but can interfere with writing and speaking. Characteristics : reversing letters and words (b+d), reading Won as Now, confusing speech sound (p+b)

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Dyscalculia

Difficulty in math and money and telling time

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73

Dysgraphia

Difficulty in writing and sentence omitting /unfinished, poor handwriting, put ones thought unclear

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74

Anxiety disorders

Overwhelmed, unrealistic fear, irrational ° Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) ° Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) ° Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ° social/specific phobias

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75

Health programs

Can be either Acute (short term/temporary) or Chronic (long term/persistent /recurrent) illness.

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76

DD

Developmental Delay can come from genetic /environmental causes. Milestones are delayed. Delays can affect cognitive, speech,social emotional, gross/fine motor skills

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77

Assessment, evaluation & programming

Planning intervention (0-6 yrs)

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78

Bayley Scale for Infant Development

Assessing development delays (1-42m)

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79

Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development

Planning intervention (0-7 yrs)

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80

Development Profile II

Assess special needs & support IEP development (0-6yrs)

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81

Early coping inventory & early learning accomplishment profile

Planning intervention (0-36m)

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82

Infant-Toddler Development assessment

screen development delays (0-42m)

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83

Screening Instruments

used to identify children that shows signs of possible problems who need assessment (not a diagnose)

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84

Assessment

used to develop/confirm diagnose of development disorder or delays and help plan curricular and treatment programs.

  • determine eligibility

  • can monitor progress and changes

  • evaluate achievement of learning

  • assessing domains of concern: sensory, motor, physical, cognitive, linguistic (language development), emotional, social (mental, health, temperament)

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85

Phonetics

study of acoustical and articulatory characteristics of human speech sounds

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86

Subglottal system

structures below the glottis. opening between the vocal folds consists of: lungs, diagram, trachea, larynx, muscles inside the vocal folds/cords

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87

Bilabial Phonemes

Pronounced or articulated with both lips, as the consonants b, p, m, and w. 2. Relating to both lips.

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88

Labiodental Phonemes

consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth

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89

Interdental Phonemes

produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth

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90

Dental Phonemes

a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/ in some languages. Dentals are usually distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge

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91

Alveolar Phoneme

Alveolars are consonants for which the flow of air is stopped or impeded by creating a block or a small aperture between the tongue and the alveolar ridge.

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92

Palatal Phoneme

consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.

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93

Velar Phoneme

consonants for which the flow of air is stopped or impeded by creating a block or a small aperture between the tongue and the velum ("soft palate").

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94

Uvular Phoneme

voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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95

Pharyngeal Phoneme

a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.

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96

Glottal Phoneme

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97

Manner of articulation

how the tongue/lips control airflow to vary phonemes

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98

Plosive articulation

completely blocking airflow and then releasing it

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99

Fricative articulation

partially blocking airflow to cause vibration/hissing/buzzing

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100

Affricates articulation

combo of plosive and fricatives

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