microbio chapter 13 (copy)

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

equilibrium

1 / 167

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

168 Terms

1

equilibrium

the human body exists in a state of dynamic

New cards
2

biofilms

many interaction between human body and microorganisms involve the development of

New cards
3

“give and take”

colonization of the body involves a constant

New cards
4

microbes

provide a protective and stabilization effect on body surfaces; are involved in maturation of host defenses and development; can invade and grow in sterile tissues, causing disease

New cards
5

infection

pathogenic microorganisms penetrate the host defenses, enter the tissues and multiply

New cards
6

disease

the pathologic state that results when something damages or disrupts tissues and organs

New cards
7

infectious disease

the disruption of a tissue or organ caused by microbes or their products

New cards
8

resident biota

the human as a habitat

New cards
9

normal (resident) biota

microbes that engage in mutual or commensal associations with humans

New cards
10

normal (resident) biota

microflora, indigenous flora, microbiota

New cards
11

metagenomics

being used to identify the microbial profile inside and on humans; human microbiome project

New cards
12

host

any organism that harbors another organism

New cards
13

symbiosis

an association between 2 or more species

New cards
14

mutualism

both members of the association living together benefit for the relationship

New cards
15

commensalism

two species live together in a relationship such that one and the other one neither benefits nor is harmed

New cards
16

parasitism

one organism , the parasite benefits from the relationship, whereas the other organism, the host, is harmed

New cards
17

microbe-free

internal organs, tissue, and fluids are

New cards
18

resident microbes

most areas of the body in contact with the outside environment harbor

New cards
19

transients

microbes that occupy the body for only short periods

New cards
20

residents

microbes that become established

New cards
21

health, age, diet, hygiene, hormones, drug therapy

biota can fluctuate with

New cards
22

microbial antagonism

many times bacterial biota benefit the human host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful microorganism

New cards
23

compromised immune systems

hosts with ____ could be infected. by their own biota

New cards
24

endogenous infections

caused by biota that are already present in the body

New cards
25

microbe-free

internal organs and tissues and fluids are

New cards
26

just before birth when mucus plug come out

uterus and contents are normally sterile and remain so until

New cards
27

pathogen

a microbe whose relationship with its host is parasitic and results in infection and disease

New cards
28

pathogenicity

type and severity of infection depend on___of the organism and the condition of the host; an organism’s potential to cause infection

New cards
29

true parthogens

capable of causing disease in healthy persons with normal immune defenses

New cards
30

true pathogens

influenza virus, plague bacillus, malarial protozoan

New cards
31

opportunistic pathogens

cause disease when the host’s defenses are compromised or when they grow in part of the body that is not natural to them

New cards
32

opportunistic pathogens

pseudomonas sp and Candida albicans

New cards
33

skin

largest and most accessible organ

New cards
34

transients

cling to the surface but do not grow there; influenced by hygiene- multiply on top epidermis layer of the skin

New cards
35

residents

stable, predictable, less influenced by hygiene primarily bacteria and yeasts- multiply on the deep layer of the epidermis

New cards
36

dermis layer of the skin

no microbes should be present in the

New cards
37

GI tract

is a long hollow tube, bounded by mucous membranes; receives, moves, digest, and absorbs food and removes waste

New cards
38

oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus

GI tract includes

New cards
39

variations in flora distribution

due to shifting conditions like pH, oxygen tension and anatomy

New cards
40

cheek epithelium, gingiva, tongue, floor of mouth, tooth enamel

most diverse and unique flora of the body

New cards
41

S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. mitis

the most common residents are aerobic streptococcus species

New cards
42

teeth eruption

establishes anaerobic habitat in the gingival crevice favoring colonization by anaerobic bacteria

New cards
43

fermentation of waste material in the feces

generates vitamins (B12, K, pyridoxine, riboflavin, and thiamine) and acids( acetic, butyric and propionic)

New cards
44

bacterial digestive enzymes

convert disaccharides to monosaccharides or steroid metabolism

New cards
45

skatole, amines and gases

contribute to intestinal odor

New cards
46

oral streptococci

first organisms to colonize

New cards
47

staphylococcus aureus

nasal entrance, nasal vestibule, anterior nasopharynx

New cards
48

neisseria species

mucous membranes of nasopharynx

New cards
49

assorted streptococci and haemophilus

tonsils ans lower pharynx

New cards
50

vagina and outer opening of uretha

sites that harbor microflora in females

New cards
51

anterior uretha

sites that harbor microflora in males

New cards
52

urine

kidney, urether, bladder and upper uretha kept sterile by

New cards
53

composition of normal flora

changes in physiology influence

New cards
54

normal flora

is essential to the health of humans; create an environment that may prevent infections and can enhance host

New cards
55

antibiotics, dietary changes, disease

may alter flora

New cards
56

probiotics

introducing known microbes back into the body

New cards
57

avoiding phagocytosis

avoiding death inside phagocyte

evading actions of the immune system

surviving host defenses

New cards
58

direct damage

toxins, enzymes, lysis

New cards
59

indirect damage

host response is inappropriate and excessive

New cards
60

virulence of the pathogen

severity of the disease depends on the

New cards
61

virulence factor

characteristic or structure that contributes to the ability of a microbe to cause disease; pathogenicity is dependent on this

New cards
62

portals of entry

characteristic route a microbe follows to enter the tissues of the body

New cards
63

exogenous agents

originate from source outside the body

New cards
64

endogenous agents

already exists on or in the body(normal flora)

New cards
65

portals of entry in skin

nicks, abrasions , punctures, incisions    

New cards
66

portals on entry in GI tract

contaminated food, drink and other ingested materials

New cards
67

portals of entry in respiratory tract

oral and nasal cavities

New cards
68

portals of entry in the urogenital tract

sexual, displaced organisms 

New cards
69

infectious dose(ID)

minimum number of microbes required for infection to proceed

New cards
70

greater virulence

microbes with small IDs have

New cards
71

infection

lack of ID will not result in

New cards
72

adhesion

microbes gain a stable foothold at the portal of entry; dependent on binding between specific molecules on host and pathogen

New cards
73

neisseria gonorrhoeae

gonorrhea; Type IV pili attach to genital epithelium. 

New cards
74

escherichia coli

diarrhea; Well-developed fimbriae adhere to intestinal cells. 

New cards
75

shigella and salmonella

gastroenteritis; Fimbriae attach to intestinal epithelium. 

New cards
76

vibrio cholerae

cholera; Glycocalyx anchors to intestinal epithelium.

New cards
77

infleunza virus

influenza; Viral spikes dock to respiratory receptors.

New cards
78

HIV

AIDS; Viral spikes adhere to white blood cell receptors.

New cards
79

exoenzymes

bacteria produce extracellular enzymes that dissolve and penetrate through or between cells to invade underlying tissues

New cards
80

toxins

secreted by bacteria damage target cells, which die and begin to slough off

New cards
81

blocked phagocytic response

bacteria have a property that enables them to escape phagocytosis and continue to grow and cause further infections

New cards
82

toxin

specific chemical product of microbes, plants, and some animals that has poisonous effects on other organ

New cards
83

toxinoses

adverse effects of toxins

New cards
84

toxemias

when the toxin is spread by the blood from the site of infection (tetanus, diphtheria)

New cards
85

intoxications

caused by ingestion of toxins (botulism

New cards
86

endotoxins

not secreted, but released after the host cell is damaged- top of outer membrane of gram negative cells (LPS)

New cards
87

exotoxins

secreted by a living bacterial cell into the infected tissue; Strong specificity for a target cell, disrupting its membrane

New cards
88

hemolysis

disrupt membrane of red blood cells

New cards
89

A-B toxins

A-active ,B-binding

New cards
90

physiological effects of exotoxins and endotoxins

fever, malaise, aches, shock- released after cell is damaged, not specific 

New cards
91

toxoid

is an inactivated toxin used in vaccines.

New cards
92

antitoxin

is an antibody that reacts specifically with a toxin.

New cards
93

incubation period

time from initial contact with the infectious agent to the appearance of first symptoms; agent is multiplying but damage is insufficient to cause symptoms; several hours to several years

New cards
94

prodromal stage

vague feelings of discomfort; nonspecific complaints- headaches, muscle aches, stomach aches

New cards
95

period of invasion

multiplies at high levels, becomes well-established; more specific signs and symptoms- greatest toxicity, greater symptoms 

New cards
96

convalescent period

as person begins to respond to the infection, symptoms decline- going back to homeostasis/ normal. Getting better. If someone dies then its called terminal illness 

New cards
97

localized infection

microbes enter the body and  remains confined to a specific tissue- warts 

New cards
98

systemic infection

infection spreads to several sites and tissue fluids usually in the bloodstream- chicken pox, measles, syphillis

New cards
99

focal infection

when infectious agent breaks loose from a local infection and is carried to other tissues- tuberculosis 

New cards
100

mixed infection

several microbes grow simultaneously at the infection site -polymicrobial

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 164 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11760 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(82)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 504 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(16)
note Note
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard184 terms
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)