Exam 1

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Homeostasis

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104 Terms

1

Homeostasis

maintenance of a stable internal environment.

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2

Receptors

monitor and detect body conditions

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3

Effectors

do some action to adjust body condition (Muscles and/or glands)

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4

Integration/control center-

Decision Maker

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5

Negative feedback-

the effect or correction reduces or reverses the stimulus from the receptor/control center and the action of the effector (turns off the stimulus)

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6

Positive feedback-

Process by which changes cause additional similar changes, producing unstable conditions.-not very common - the effect continually increases or intensifies requires control external to loop (outside influence has to stop it)

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7

Metabolism-

The sum of all chemical reactions in a living system: Energy and nutrient cycling

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8

What is "The basic unit of structure and function" in the human body?

The Cell - smallest unit of structure and function

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9

List the following from least organized/complex to most organized/complex Tissue, Organ system, Organ, Cell, Organism

cells - tissue - organs - organ systems - organisms

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10

Regulates body activities through hormones

Endocrine

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11

Body movement, posture, and heat production

Muscular

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12

Breaks down and absorbs food

Digestive System

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13

Protects body, detects sensations, and helps regulate body temperature

Integumentary

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14

Transports oxygen, nutrients, and carbon dioxide throughout the body

Cardiovascular/Circulatory

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15

Supports and protects body

Skeletal

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16

Eliminates wastes and regulates chemical composition of blood

Urinary

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17

Transfers oxygen from air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to air

Respiratory

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18

Regulates body activities through receptors and effectors

Nervous

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19

In charge of immunity and returning body fluids to blood

Lymphatic

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20

Describe "Anatomical Position"

Body posture with the body erect, face forward, arms at the sides with palms facing forward.

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21

Brain

cranial cavity

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22

uterus

Pelvic Cavity

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23

gall bladder

Abdominal Cavity

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24

Liver

Abdominal Cavity

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25

colon

Abdominal Cavity

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26

heart

Thoracic Cavity

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27

Lungs

Thoracic Cavity

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28

small intestines

Abdominal Cavity

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29

trachea

Thoracic Cavity

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30

Stomach

Abdominal Cavity

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31

urinary bladder

Pelvic Cavity

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32

spleen

Abdominal cavity

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33

Pancreas

Abdominal Cavity

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34

esophagus

Thoracic Cavity

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35

kidneys

Abdominal cavity

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36

Sagittal

divides from side to side, or left and right

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37

Midsagittal

divides evenly in half

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38

Transverse (horizontal)

divides top and bottom, or superior and inferior

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39

Coronal (frontal)

divides front and back, or anterior and posterior

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40

Oblique

divides at an angle

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41

superior/inferior

The Heart is Superior to the stomach/ The stomach is inferior to the heart

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42

anterior/posterior

the ribs are anterior to the heart/ the heart is posterior to the ribs

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43

ventral/dorsal

the nose is ventral to the butt/ The butt is dorsal to the nose

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44

medial/lateral

The heart is Medial to the Lungs/ the lungs are lateral to the heart

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45

proximal/distal

The wrists are distal to the elbow/ The elbow is proximal to the wrist

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46

superficial/deep

The skin is superficial to the liver/ The liver is deep to the skin

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47

What are the three main parts of an atom

Protons, neutrons, and electrons

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48

How is the atomic number of an atom determined

By the number of protons

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49

How is the atomic weight of an atom determined

By the number of protons and neutrons

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50

What determines the chemical behavior of an atom

is due to interaction of electrons -when combining atoms: (molecules & compounds) gain e- lose e- share e-

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51

Describe the three main kinds of bonds between atoms #1 Ionic bond

exchange e- (lose or gain) Electrolytes, salts Usually medium to strong bond

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52

Describe the three main kinds of bonds between atoms #2 Covalent bond

share e- Single, double, triple, polar, nonpolar Usually very strong bond

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53

Describe the three main kinds of bonds between atoms #3 Hydrogen bond

attraction of H atom to a nearby O or N atom Water, DNA, Proteins Usually very weak bond

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54

Strongest Bond

Covalent

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55

Weakest Bond

Hydrogen

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56

What does a synthesis reaction do

put together, build, requires energy A + B -->AB

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57

What does a decomposition reaction do

take apart, break down, releases energy AB -->A + B

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58

What is anabolism

the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism.

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59

What is catabolism

the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.

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60

What do enzymes do in a reaction

Enzymes speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions

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61

What are enzymes usually made of

made of strings of amino acids chemically bonded to one another

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62

What elements are carbohydrates made of

carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms

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63

What are the three main monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, or galactose

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64

What is a disaccharide

a molecule composed of two bonded simple sugar units.

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65

What is a polysaccharide

Carbohydrate composed of many joined monosaccharides.

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66

In what form do humans store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle

Glycogen

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67

What elements are proteins made of

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. (amino Acids)

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68

What are the characteristics (parts) of amino acids, and how are they constructed

Amino acid molecules have an amino group (—NH2) at one end and a carboxyl group (—COOH) at the other end. Between these groups is a single carbon atom known as the central carbon. This central carbon is bonded to a hydrogen atom and to another group of atoms called a side chain or R group. The R group distinguishes the types if amino acids.

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69

How do amino acids link (bond) together

Connected by peptide bonds they link the amino end of one amino acid with the carboxyl end of another

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70

What is the bond called

Covalent Bond/ Peptide Bond

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71

What is a peptide

Peptides are short strings of amino acids, typically comprising 2-50 amino acids.

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72

How do amino acids form proteins

A series of peptide bonds /Many amino acids connected in this way constitute a polypeptide. Proteins have four levels of structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The primary structure is the amino acid sequence, the order in which particular amino acids occur in the polypeptide chain

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73

What substance are in the lipid category

  • Fats, Fatty Acids, Ketone Bodies, Phospholipids, Steroids.

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74

What is the main form of fat we use for fuel

Triglycerides

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75

What elements are fatty acids made of

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (sometimes Phosphorus)

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76

How are triglycerides constructed

glycerol + three fatty acid chains

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77

What does hydrophobic mean

do not dissolve in water and are called ("fearing" water).

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78

What hydrophilic mean

water soluble ("liking" water)

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79

What are phospholipids

Two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group bound to a glycerol molecule

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80

What very important structure of the cell is made of phospholipids

Plasma membrane

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81

What are the main parts of a nucleic acid

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus which form building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a 5-carbon sugar a phosphate group, and one of five nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil

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82

What important substances/structures are made of nucleic acids

Nucleotides, DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA(ribonucleic acid), ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate)

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83

What is the difference in the nucleotides between RNA and DNA...RNA

(ribonucleic acid) is composed of nucleotides that have ribose sugar and RNA molecules are single-stranded polynucleotide chains,

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84

What is the difference in the nucleotides between RNA and DNA...DNA

has deoxyribose sugar. DNA is a double polynucleotide chain wound into a double helix

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85

What are the bases for DNA

bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G)

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86

How does DNA link/bond together in a single chain

nucleotides are linked into chains, with the phosphate and sugar groups alternating.

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87

How does DNA link/bond together in a double helix

Hydrogen bonds hold the two chains together. Adenine (A) always pairs with thymine (T). Cytosine (C) always pairs with guanine (G).

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88

What are the bases for RNA

bases are adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C), and guanine (G)

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89

How does RNA link/bond together in a single chain

ribose nucleotide bases are chemically attached to one another in a chain via chemical bonds called phosphodiester bonds

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90

How does RNA interact with DNA bases

they can fold into shapes that enable them to interact with DNA

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91

Determine The Category: Fatty Acids

Lipid

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92

Determine The Category: Triglycerides

Lipid

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93

Determine The Category: Enzymes

Protein

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94

Determine The Category: RNA

Nucleic Acid

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95

Determine The Category: Glucose

Carbohydrate

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96

Determine The Category: Steroids

Lipid

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97

Determine The Category: Polysaccharides

Carbohydrate

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98

Determine The Category: DNA

Nucleic Acid

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99

Determine The Category: Sugar

Carbohydrate

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100

Determine The Category: Amino Acid

Protein

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