Human AP exam #4

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Synapses

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166 Terms

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Synapses

small spaces between neurons that are important centers for the transmission of electrochemical messages

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Neurotransmitters

the carriers of these messages are biological messenger molecules

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Sensory receptors

gather information by detecting changes in the environment

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Nucleus

is near the center of the cell body and has a conspicuous nucleolus

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Dendrites

usually high branched, providing receptive surfaces to which processes from other neurons communicate

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Unmyelinated axons

the smallest axons also have Schwann cells enclosure, but they do not wind around them, so they lack a myelin sheath

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-appear grey

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Myelinated axons

axons with a myelinated sheath

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-appear white

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Sensory neurons

afferent neurons- carry nerve impulses from peripheral body parts into the CNS

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Interneurons

association or internuncial neurons- lie within CNS, are multipolar and form links between other neurons

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Motor neurons

efferent neurons- are multipolar and carry nerve impulses out of the CNS to effectors

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Accelerator neurons

increase muscular activities

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Inhibitory neurons

decreases muscular activities

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Astrocytes

star-shaped cells- provide support and hold structures together

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Oligodendrocytes

form myelin in the CNS, can send out a number of processes so that one cell can provide myelin for many axons

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Microglia

are small and have fewer processes than other neuroglial cells, help support neurons and phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris

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Ependymal

cuboidal or columnar cells that may have cilia, form the inner lining of the central canals, covers the inside of the ventricles, help regulate the composition of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles

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Chemically gated

ion channels are opened or closed by this reaction

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Synaptic potentials

created by chemically gated ion channels enable one neuron to influence another

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Potential difference

the difference in the electrical charge between the two regions

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Membrane potential

the potential difference across the membrane

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-measured in millivolts

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Resting potential

the membrane potential of a resting neuron and has a value of - 70mV

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Hyperpolarized

if the membrane potential becomes more negative

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Depolarized

if the membrane potential becomes more positive

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Repolarization

slower voltage-gated potassium channels open, potassium diffuses outward and the inside of the membrane becomes negative again

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Nerve impulse

a series of action potentials along an axon

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Refractory period

following passage of a nerve impulse, a threshold stimulus will not trigger another impulse on an axon

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Absolute refractory period

lasts about 1/2500 of a second- the membrane is changing in sodium permeability and cannot be stimulated

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Relative refractory period

when the membrane is reestablishing its resting potential- a threshold stimulus of high intensity may trigger an impulse

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Saltatory conduction

myelinated nerve fibers have action potentials occurring only at the nodes of Ranvier- they appear to jump from node to node

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Acetylcholine

stimulates skeletal muscle contractions

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Monoamines

formed by modifying amino acids

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Acetylcholinesterase

decomposes acetylcholine

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Reuptake

other neurotransmitters are transported back into the synaptic knob of the presynaptic neuron

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Monoamine oxidase

inactivates epinephrine and norepinephrine after reuptake

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Enkephalins

consist of a chain of 5 amino acids. Synthesized during periods of painful stress.

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Beta endorphin

found in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid

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Substance P

consists of 11 amino acids and is widely distributed throughout the nervous system

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Forebrain

prosencephalon

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Midbrain

short section between the diencephalon and pons. -mesencephalon

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Hindbrain

rhombencephalon

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Frontal lobe

bordered posteriorly by a central sulcus and inferiorly by a lateral sulcus

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Parietal lobe

separated from frontal lobe by central sulcus

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Temporal lobe

separated from frontal and parietal lobes by lateral sulcus

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Occipital lobe

separated from cerebellum by a shelflike extension of the dura mater called the tentorium cerebelli

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Insula

island of Reil- located deep within central sulcus- separated from the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes by a circular sulcus

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49
  1. may serve as a crossroads for translating sensory information into appropriate emotional responses- such as feeling disgust at the sight of something unpleasant

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Primary motor areas

lie in precentral gyri of the frontal lobes; contain many large pyramidal cells

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Reticulospinal and rubrospinal tracts

coordinate and control motor functions that maintain balance and posture- many of these pass into the basal ganglia

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Broca's area

just anterior to the primary motor cortex and superior to the lateral sulcus, usually in the left hemisphere

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Frontal eye lid

controls voluntary movements of the eyes and eyelids

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General interpretive area

plays the primary role in complex thought processing- receives input from multiple sensory areas and consolidates the information which is then communicated to other brain areas

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Corpus callosum

transfer sensory information from the nondominant to the general interpretative area of the dominant

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Memory consolidation

the conversion of short-term memories into long-term memories

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Long-term synaptic potentiation

frequent, nearly simultaneous, and repeated stimulation of the same neurons, primarily in the hippocampus, strengthens their synaptic connections

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Infundibulum

a conical stalk behind the optic chiasma to which the pituitary gland is attached

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Posterior pituitary gland

hangs from the floor of the hypothalamus

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Mammillary bodies

two rounded structured behind infundibulum which serve as relay stations for olfactory pathways

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Pineal gland

produces the hormone melatonin

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Limbic system

composed of portions of the cerebral cortex in the medial parts of the frontal and parietal lobes connecting with the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal nuclei, and other deep nuclei

-guides a person into behavior that might increase the chance of survival

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Brainstem

connects the brain to the spinal cord

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Cerebral peduncles

include the corticospinal tracts and are the main motor pathways between the cerebrum and the lower parts of nervous system

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Corpora quadrigemina

four nuclei on the superior surface of midbrain

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Cerebral aqueduct

connects the third and fourth ventricle

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Red nucleus

near the center of the midbrain and communicates with the cerebellum and with centers of the spinal cord

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Pons

appears as a rounded bulge on underside of midbrain- separates the midbrain from the medulla oblongata

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Medulla oblonglata

an enlarged continuation of the spinal cord, extending from the level of the foramen magnum to the pons

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Nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus

receives sensory impulses from fibers of the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus and pass them on to the thalamus or the cerebellum

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Cardiac center

increases or decreases the heart rate

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Vasomotor center

constrict blood vessels to raise blood pressure; dilates blood vessels to lower blood pressure

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Respiratory center

acts with centers in the pons to regulate the rate, rhythm, and depth of breathing

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Reticular formation

a complex network of nerve fibers associated with tiny islands of gray matter; extends from the superior portion of the spinal cord into the diencephalon; connects centers of the hypothalamus, basal nuclei, cerebellum, and cerebrum with fibers in all major ascending and descending tracts.

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Cerebellum

a large mass of tissue located inferior to the occipital lobes of the cerebrum and posterior to the pons and medulla

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Vermis

connects the two hemispheres at the midline

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Arbor vitae

a cut into the cerebellum reveals a treelike pattern of white matter

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Cerebellar peduncles

communicates with other parts of CNS by three pairs of nerve tracts

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Cervical enlargement

a thickening in the neck region that supplies nerves to the upper limbs

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Lumbar enlargement

a thickening in the lower back that gives off nerves to the lower limbs

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Central canal

continuous with the ventricles of the brain- filled with CSF

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Reflex arcs

carry out the simplest responses- reflexes

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Reflex center

sensory neuron leads to several interneurons within the CNS

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Spinal reflexes

reflexes whose arc passes through the spinal cord

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Fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus

posterior funiculi; carry sensory impulses from the skin, muscles, tendons, and joints to the brain - interpreted as sensations of touch, pressure, and body movements

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Spinothalamic tracts

lateral and anterior tracts located in the lateral and anterior funiculi; impulses cross over in the spinal cord

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Spinocerebellar tracts

posterior and anterior tracts lie near the surface of the lateral funiculi; fibers in posterior remain uncrossed; anterior fibers cross over in the medulla

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Corticospinal tracts

lateral and anterior tracts occupy the lateral and anterior funiculi; most over lateral tract fivers cross over in medulla; some of anterior fibers cross over at various levels of spinal cord

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Reticulospinal tracts

lateral tracts are in lateral funiculi, anterior and medial tracts are in the anterior funiculi; some fibers of lateral cross over

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Rubrospinal tracts

pass through lateral funiculi; cross over in brain

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Peripheral nerve

consists of connective tissue surrounding bundles of nerve fibers

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Epineurium

the outermost layer

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General somatic efferent fibers

motor impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles and stimulate them to contract

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General visceral efferent fibers

motor impulses from CNS to various smooth muscles and glands associated with internal organs, causing certain muscles to contract or glands to secrete

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General somatic afferent fibers

sensory impulses to CNS from receptors in skin and skeletal muscles

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General visceral afferent fibers

sensory impulses to CNS from blood vessels and internal organs

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Special somatic efferent fibers

motor impulses to the muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and forming facial expressions

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Special visceral afferent fibers

sensory impulses to the brain from the taste and olfactory receptors

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Special somatic afferent fibers

sensory impulses to the brain from the receptors of sight, hearing, and equilibrium

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Ophthalmic division

impulses to the brain from surface of eye, tear gland, and skin of anterior scalp, forehead, and upper eyelid

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