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What are eukaryotic cells?

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304 Terms

1

What are eukaryotic cells?

cells with a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

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2

what organisms have eukaryotic cells?

plants, animals, fungi, protists

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3

What do plant cells have that animal cells don't?

chloroplast, cell wall, large vacuole

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4

What do animal cells have that plant cells don't?

lysosomes and centrioles

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5

What is a prokaryotic cell?

cell that does not have a nucleus or organelles

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6

what organisms have prokaryotic cells?

Bacteria and Archaea

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7

what are organelles

specialised structures within a cell that perform specific functions.

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8

What is the nucleus?

membrane-bound organelle that contains a cell's DNA

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9

What does the nucleus do?

regulates cell activities such as gene expression and cell division.

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10

What is the cell membrane?

a thin barrier surrounding the cell that controls the movement of substances in and out.

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11

What are lysosomes?

small organelles filled with digestive enzymes

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12

What does a lysosome do?

Uses digestive enzymes to rid the cell of waste

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13

what is DNA made up of

nucleotides

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14

What does DNA stand for?

deoxyribonucleic acid

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15

what does RNA do?

holds genetic information and aids in protein synthesis.

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16

What is resolution?

the ability to distinguish separate points or objects in an image

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17

if I have a higher resolution provides what?

provides clearer and more detailed images.

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18

what does TEMs stand for?

transmission electron microscopes

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19

How do TEMs work?

use electrons transmitted through a specimen to create detailed images, particularly useful for studying internal cell structures

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20

What does SEMS stand for?

scanning electron microscopes

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21

How do SEMs work?

scan the surface of a specimen with electrons to produce detailed three-dimensional images, allowing examination of surface features.

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22

how are animal cells are distinct from those of other eukaryotic cells

because the lack cell walls and chloroplasts and have smaller vacuoles (meaning it can transform into a variety of different shape)

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23

What does the cell membrane do?

controls what goes in and out of the cell

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24

the cell membrane is

Semi-permeable/Partially permeable/Selectively permeable

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25

What is the cell membrane made of?

phospholipid bilayer

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26

What does semi-permeable mean?

It will let some molecules through but not others

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27

what does hydrophilic mean

Attracted to water

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28

What does hydrophobic mean?

repels water

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29

what does glycoproteins mean

any of a class of proteins which have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain

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30

What is cholesterol?

a compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues

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31

What does extrinsic mean?

not part of the essential nature of someone or something

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32

Is DNA single or double stranded?

double helix

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33

Is RNA single or double stranded?

single stranded

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34

What are the four nucleotide bases found in RNA?

cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil / c,g,t,u

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35

Which nucleotide base pairs with uracil in RNA?

Adenine (A)

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36

What is the role of uracil in RNA?

Uracil is responsible for pairing with adenine in RNA during the process of protein synthesis.

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37

What are the four nucleotide bases found in DNA?

Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine / a,t,g,c

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38

What is a nucleotide?

the whole structure of a DNA

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39

What is a polynucleotide?

long chain of nucleotides

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40

What does condensation reaction make?

water

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41

What is a hydrolysis reaction?

a reaction in which a bond is broken by the addition of a water molecule

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42

which nucleotide bases join together In DNA

c=g

a=t

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43

which nucleotide bases join together in RNA

C=G

A=U

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44

What is magnification?

How much bigger the image is that the specimen

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45

What is magnification calculation?

size of image / size of real object

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46

How many micrometers are in a millimeter?

1000 micrometers

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47

How many nanometer are in a micrometer?

1000 nanometers

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48

Plant cells have

chloroplasts and a cell wall surrounding it

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49

plant cells are distinguished from most other cells by

chloroplast and one or more Lange vacuoles

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50

Where is chloroplast found?

in certain algae in plant cells

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51

plant cells enable the vacuole to

attain a large size without accumulating the bulk that would make metabolism difficult.

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52

Where is cell sap found inside plants?

Inside the vacuole

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53

What is cell sap?

A water solution of sugar and salts

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54

How is the high concentration of cell sap maintained?

The high concentration of cell sap is maintained by the active transport of ions through the vacuole membrane.

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55

What role does active transport play in maintaining cell sap concentration?

Active transport of ions through the vacuole membrane helps to maintain the high concentration of cell sap.

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56

What is osmosis?

diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

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57

pros of TEMs

  • High resolution

  • Highest magnification

  • Gives information about surface features, shape, size and structure.

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58

cons of TEMs

They're very big and expensive.

they are sensitive to mechanical vibration High maintains

Need a lot of materials in order to see anything

artifacts can be generated by sample preparation.

Special training is needed

Small space to see the material

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59

pros of SEMs

  • Can build 3d images

  • sample does not need to thin

  • Gives artificial colouring

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60

cons of SEMs

  • Artefacts are common

  • Black and white image

  • Specialist operators are required to operate electron microscopes

  • Expensive

  • inability to analyse live specimens

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61

What is homeostasis?

Maintaining a stable internal environment

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62

Examples of homeostasis

sweating and shivering

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63

Homeostatic imbalances can lead to

diabetes, hypertension, and hypothermia.

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64

what are the 5 things we need to keep a constant in our body

  1. Water

  2. glucose

  3. Ph

  4. body temperature

  5. blood pressure

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65

what happens when blood glucose is too high

Insulin is added and causes cells to take up more glucose

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66

what does insulin do with the enzymes?

converts glucose to glycogen

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67

What is glycogenesis?

formation of glycogen from glucose

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68

what happens when blood glucose is too low

Glucagon is added

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69

What does glucagon do?

activates enzymes in order to make glucose from glycerol and amino acids

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70

What is gluconeogenesis?

the formation of glucose from glycerol and amino acids

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71

Where does adrenaline come from?

adrenal gland

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72

if blood glucose is too ____ Adrenaline is also secreted by adrenal glands

low

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73

What is type 1 diabetes?

characterised by a lack of insulin production in the body, meaning high bsl

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74

What is insulin?

Insulin is a hormone which converts glucose into glycogen (when blood sugar levels are too high)

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75

Where does insulin come from?

pancreas

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76

What is type 2 diabetes?

insulin resistance

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77

how does the body try to deal with type 2 diabetes

the pancreas has to produce more insulin to try to regulate blood sugar levels,

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78

Is type 1 or 2 diabetes more to do with lifestyle?

type 2

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79

What is type 1 diabetes caused by?

an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas

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80

Is type 1 or type 2 diabetes less to do with lifestyle changes?

type 2

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81

How is Type 2 diabetes managed?

diet and exercise

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82

If you have glucose in your urine, what's responsible for it?

too much glucose

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83

how can you detect if you have diabetes

urine dipstick

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84

what is the kidneys' threshold for reabsorption

180 mg/dL

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85

What is glycosuria?

glucose in the urine

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86

What is osmoregulation?

The control of water balance.

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87

How does the body lose water?

  • sweat

  • breathing out

  • urine

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88

What is aldosterone?

a hormone produced in the cortex of the adrenal gland

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89

What does aldosterone do?

Increases reabsorption of sodium and increases secretion of potassium, this helps lower blood pressure

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90

what are the consequences of Salt Deficiency

  • Disorientation and Confusion

  • Muscle Cramp and Nausea

  • Severe Organ Damage

  • Stroke

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91

how do we lose too much salt

too much water - can flush out sodium

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92
  • excessive loss in body fluids

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93
  • eating disorder

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94

What does ADH do?

Facilitates reabsorption of water in kidney

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95

What is ADH?

antidiuretic hormone

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96

Where is ADH produced?

hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland

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97

Where does aldosterone come from?

adrenal gland

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98

What affects photosynthesis?

light intensity, carbon dioxide, water supply, temperature

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99

Photon of light + water

1/2o2 +2e- + 2h+

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100

What happens when photosystem 2 is hit with a photon of light?

When photosystem 2 is hit with a photon of light, it gets excited and releases 2 high-energy electrons.

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