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gupta dynasty

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gupta dynasty

united south asia through hinduism but fell in 550

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chola dynasty

reigned through 850-1267 in northern india, extended their rule to sri lanka

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vijayanagara empire

  • reigned from 1336-1646

  • two brothers from the delhi sultanate (run by muslims) had converted to islam for social mobility and they left, converting back to hinduism and creating their own empire

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political structures in northern india

  • rajput kingdoms after the gupta empire (no centralized government)

  • 8th century an Islamic army invaded pakistan, 11th century Islamic armies destroyed religious temples and built mosques on top

  • 13th century delhi sultanate arrived reigning for 300 years (imposed the jizya tax and local kingdoms still had power)

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actively seeking more converts to a religion

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social structures in south and southeast asia

  • caste system was still intact (sub castes were created such as worker's guilds)

  • southeast asian women mostly had independence before islam

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house of wisdom (in baghdad)

algebra and geometry, translations of literature translated into arabic

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bhakti movement

  • 12th century southern india hindus wanted to create attachments to deities

  • they didn't discriminate against women or lower classes (similar to sufi muslims)

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sea based kingdoms in south and southeast asia

  • srivijaya empire (670-1025) : hindu, based in sumatra, built navy ships and charged fees

  • majapahit kingdom (1293-1520) : buddhist, also controlled sea routes

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land based kingdoms in south and southeast asia

  • sinhala: based in sri lanka, merchants from india set up buddhist monasteries, advisors to monarchs, irrigation systems

  • khmer (802-1431): near the mekong river, irrigation lead to economic growth, rice was harvested 7 times a year, in 1431 the sukgothai kingdom invaded

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islam and the sufis

first to convert were merchants, islam was very popular in urban areas, sufis did missionary work and people from other religions could convert and still believe in their deities

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in illinois, the civilization revolved around large earth mounds

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government and society in the americas

class system, chief called great sun ruled over a large town, women farmed and men hunted, matrilineal society

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mayan government

most rulers were men, they didn't fight for territory, they fought for tribute, human sacrifices, common people payed taxes

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religion, science and tech in the americas

concept of 0, writing system, rubber, calendar was very important, priests could be male or female

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the aztecs

  • capital was tenochtitlan in 1325

  • floating gardens called chinampas

  • tribute system, city-states grouped into provinces

  • pochteca were merchants who sold luxury goods

  • lack of wheeled vehicles and pack animals

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the inca

  • 4 provinces in peru

  • mit'a system where men had mandatory public service

  • god inti

  • had mathematics and recorded through the quipu system

  • built roads, carpa nan stretched 25,000 miles

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inland africa

kin based networks, the hausa kingdoms where each of the 7th states had a specialty

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east and west africa

\n increased trade which led to wealth, political power and cultural diversity, animism and christianity were being practiced when islam arrived

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kingdom founded 5th century, golden age was 8th-11th century, rulers traded with muslim merchants, centralized gov

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muslim founder, thriving gold trade, tied into indian ocean trade

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gold trade, bantu+arabic=swahili, the great zimbabwe was a big stone wall surrounding the capital

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religiously diverse, 12th century led by christians

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zanji and the zanji rebellion

  • zanji = enslaved east africans who worked on sugar plantations in mesopotamia

  • rebellion between 869 and 883 where 15,000 slaves held basra

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griots and griottes

sub-saharan african storytellers who also consoled on political matters, griottes provided empowerment for women

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the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection

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the holy roman empire

  • german king otto crowned in 962

  • lay investiture controversy in 11th and 12th century, resolved with the concordat of worms in 1122

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norman kingdom

  • william the conqueror invaded england in 1066, ruling with a feudal system

  • 1215: king john signed the magna carta which required the king to respect rights

  • 1265: first english parliament formed

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the great schism

1054, the christian church in europe split

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christian crusades

  • sought to reclaim the holy land

  • primogeniture: where the eldest son inherited everything, left younger sons with nothing to do and a military campaign was a way to divert

  • the crusades were from 1095-1200s

  • the first crusade was a win for the christians in 1099, but muslims regain jerusalem in 1187

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economic and social change in afro-eurasia

  • marco polo visited beijing in the late 13th century, curiosity about other countries grew and with that so did cartography

  • middle class began to grow

  • larger cities and population growth

  • black death in the 14th century

  • the roman catholic church has a policy where christians couldn't charge loans on other christians, and jews became moneylenders, jews lived in urban areas and served as a bridge between Christians and Muslims

  • women in Islamic societies had higher levels of equality

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the renaissance

  • printing press → manuscripts being mass-produced

  • humanism, the focus on individuals rather than God

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han dynasty

(202 BCE-220 CE), the next 3 centuries were full of unstable government and aristocratic families rose to power

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the "golden age" of chinese achievement

  • unity regained under sui dynasty (589-618)

  • 1,200 miles of canal which linked china from the northern and southern parts

  • the sui's emperors campaigns to conquer korea used up resources and caused a revolution to overthrow the sui dynasty

  • The tang (618-907) and song (960-1279) dynasties followed after

  • the song dynasty promoted education and neo- confucianism became popular because it was combining the beliefs of buddhism, daoism and confucianism

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tang and song government structure

  • personnel, finance, rites, army, justice and public works accompanied by the Censorate, who surveilled the rest of the government

  • printed books for the first time in history

  • schools and colleges became important to upper-class life

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champa rice

tributary gift from Vietnam to China, led to population increase because it was fast ripening and drought-resistant

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china's industrial production

  • 11th century government was producing 32,000 suits of armor and 16 million arrowheads per year

  • in addition to things like tools, bells and coins

  • world's first printed books 1000 cheap books on things like agriculture, math, religions and medicine became widely available

  • invention of gunpowder

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women's role in the song dynasty society

confucianism = patriarchal beliefs, foot-binding was popular, as women's roles in the textile industry dwindled, women in cities worked as maids, cooks, dressmakers and operated restaurants

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china and the northern nomads

the great wall was built to keep the nomads out, the tribute system was for non-chinese authorities to acknowledge and appreciate chinese culture

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early nomadic confederacy that confronted china's empire, they persuaded the chinese emperor to negotiate an arrangement that recognized them as a political equal

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korea and china

  • chinese conquered northern korea during the han dynasty

  • silla kingdom allied with the Tang dynasty to bring unity to the korean peninsula 688 they withdrew their military and established a tributary relationship with korea

  • Confucian beliefs that were being established in Korea, women's rights dwindled

  • 1400s hangul was created, the written Korean language

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vietnam and china

  • adopted confucianism, daoism, buddhism, government style and literacy/artistic style

  • part of vietnam, the red river valley was incorporated in china during 111 BCE - 939 CE and officials made the people assimilate to chinese culture

  • developed chu nom script

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japan and china

  • Shotoku Taishi (572-622) wanted to incorporate more of Chinese culture into Japan

  • decentralized government

  • women didn't have as many restrictions because

  • women could inherit property, divorce, no foot binding

  • during twelfth century women's rights declined

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china's economics

  • processing of cotton and sugar from India

  • around 1000 champa rice was introduced

  • printing had a Buddhist connection because there was religious merit in spreading the sacred texts

  • in the Tang dynasty, there was a lot of Indian Ocean trade

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china and buddhism

  • buddhism came from india, via the silk road

  • first resisted because it clashed so much with buddhist beliefs but it was accepted after the fall of the han dynasty (200 CE)

  • after the reunification of china, under the sui and tang there was encouragement of buddhism

  • in 845, 260,000 monks + nuns were forced to pay taxes and monasteries and temples were destroyed buddhists were scattered after this

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islam origin

  • muhammad Ibn abdullah (570-632 CE) was born into a quraysh family in mecca, he became a merchant

  • the revelations began in 610 and continued for 22 years, it was recorded in the quran

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the message of the quran

submission to allah was the primary duty, the quran preached solidarity, equality and concern for the poor

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the five pillars

  • the shahadah: the belief that allah is the only god

  • salah: praying 5 times a day

  • zakat: making an annual donation to the poor

  • sawm: fasting during ramadan

  • hajj: pilgrimage to makkah

  • sometimes a 6th: jihad, which means to struggle

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a law that regulated every aspect of islamic life

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forming an arab empire

  • encompassed all or part of the egyptian, roman/byzantine, persian, mesopotamian and indian civilizations

  • after muhammad's death it was a common goal to spread the religion

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what the jews, christians, and zoroastrians were called because they were protected by the quran

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division after muhammad's death

  • after muhammad's death, people were confused about who would lead

  • the "rightly guided caliphs" (632-661) was the cause of division after 2/4 were assassinated

  • the sunni muslims focused on following the prophet's example where the shi'a muslims wanted to focus on muhammad's lineage such as imams

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umayyad family

(661-750), caliphs became hereditary rulers

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the abbasid dynasty

persian culture spread, mid-ninth century local governors had autonomy over their regions but most power was consolidated in the capital, mongol conquest in 1258 put an end to this empire

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women in the quran

the quran was very clear about women and men being equal but when it came to marriage, women were viewed as inferior

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islam in india

  • the turks carried islam to india

  • at first (around 1000) takeover were violent, destroying any other temples

  • but with the establishment of the sultanate of delhi in 1206, turkic rule was more systematic

  • sufi missionaries spread Islam to lower classes but it didn't catch on because of the cultural divide between religions

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  • mby 1500 the population was 90% muslim and mostly turkic-speaking

  • non-converts were discriminated against

  • sufis created hospices and schools

  • turkic traditions were more gender-equal

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west africa

  • introduced by trade, converting was peaceful and voluntary

  • islam provided monarch with religious legitimacy

  • education boomed

  • lower classes in rural areas didn't adopt it until later on, rulers were religiously tolerant

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  • muslims, christians + jews produced high culture

  • christians welcomed arabic + muslim traditions

  • under the rule of abu amir al-mansur (981-1002) tolerance for christian dwindled

  • after 1200, muslims were forced out of spain, and in 1492 so were the jews

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they emphasized personal experience over islamic law, blended islam

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silk road

  • connected china, india, and the middle east, traded goods and helped to spread culture

  • in 7/8th centuries it was supported by the byzantine empire, the abbasids and the tang dynasty

  • in the 13/14th centuries mongol empire had encompassed almost all of the routes

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ships and indian ocean trade

the innovation of ships led to more bulk goods

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chinese inventions

larger ships, silk, compass, gunpowder

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southeast asia and srivijaya

  • buddhism was used as religious legitimacy

  • became a major center for buddhism and taught monks and students

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trans-saharan trade

  • the camel was very important

  • long distance trade like going across the saharan desert provided incentive and resources for new political structures

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trade in the americas

  • an active network of exchange was in cahokia from ~900-1250 where the missouri, mississippi and Illinois rivers meet

  • copper bells and cacao beans from mesoamerica

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pastoral societies

  • clans values: individual achievement and equality

  • women could initiate divorce and remarrying had no negative connotations

  • political unity was hard to achieve because groups were so independent, armies so couldn't be formed because of the lack of wealth

  • horses = centrality of pastoral society

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chinggis (genghis) khan

born with the name temujin; gains power in tribe after his father's death; becomes powerful in the Mongol society and gains title of genghis khan in 1206

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the xiongnu

masters in mounted warfare, lived in the mongolian steppes of china

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the masai of east africa

  • unity through rituals

  • outsiders could become masai by bringing cattle and engaging in the age-set

  • farm societies adopted some masai culture such as hairstyles but most importantly, military organization

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mongol empire timeline

1206 - temujin became chinggis khan leader of the great mongol nation \n 1209 - first major attack on agricultural societies nearby \n 1242 - mongols withdraw from eastern europe \n 1260 - defeat at ain jalut by egyptian forces \n 1274, 1281 - failure to invade japan because of typhoons

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mongol military

  • social structure of military units - 10, 100, 1,000, 10,0000

  • loyalty was important in military forces

  • military effectiveness because of the brutality and destructiveness

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what made the mongols unique

  • census system and relay stations

  • fostered commerce by offering 10% more than other customers

  • supported different religions as long as they didn't become political opposition

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china and the mongols

  • unified china, believed the mongols had been granted mandate of heaven

  • mongols used chinese taxation, postal systems and administrative processes

  • chinese dynastic title was yuan, signaling a new beginning

  • khubilai khan = benevolent ruler

  • the mongols ignored the traditional examination system and relied on foreigners like muslims

  • mongol law discriminated against the chinese

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persia and the mongols

  • first invasion by chinggis khan in 1219-1221, second in 1251-1258 by hulegu, who became the first il-khan

  • 1258 end of abbasid caliphate massacre of 200,000+

  • peasants lost their land due to harsh taxes

  • ghazan (1295-1304) repaired cities and irrigation systems

  • mongols converted to islam and learned persian

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russia and the mongols

  • invaded between 1237 and 1240

  • the skilled people that survived were sold to other mongol lands

  • they continued their nomadic way of life while still near russian cities, they exploited and dominated from the steppes

  • under the harsh taxes, the russian orthodox church thrived

  • moscow was the collector of tribute for the mongols

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the black death

  • started in central asian trade routes in 1331

  • spread to europe in 1347

  • mongols used catapults to throw corpses at the genoese

  • half of the european population died in the initial outbreak

  • labor shortages led to better wages for peasants but nobles resisted

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flying cash

chinese term for paper money

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hanseatic league

__________ was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in northwestern and central europe.

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a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey

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if you lived in the safavid empire you would probably be a ____ muslim.


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what muslim leader reconquered jerusalem after the 2nd crusade?


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what did the crusaders do when they reached constantinople during the 4th crusade?

looted the city

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who led the people's crusade?

peter the hermit

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T/F : venice and genoa benefited from the wealth and trade brought by the crusades


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Qing Dynasty

  • last imperial dynasty of China

  • preceded by the Ming Dynasty and succeeded by the People's Republic

  • founded in 1644 by the Manchus and ruled China for more than 260 years, until 1912

  • expanded China's borders to include Taiwan, Tibet, Chinese Central Asia, and Mongolia

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  • Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644

  • last of China's imperial dynasties

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Mughal Empire

  • Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

  • often had difficulties managing such a large, diverse empire

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Ottoman Empire

  • Islamic State of Turkic speaking peoples lasting from 1453-1922; conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453

  • based in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople)

  • encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.

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A Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the Persians, Ottomans, and Arabs.

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  • an Islamic West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 16th century

  • eventually defeated by the Moroccans who were broke after fighting with Portugal

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  • 'Selection' in Turkish

  • the system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries (elite military units)

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class of salaried warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble called a daimyo (who in turned pledged loyalty to a shogun) in return for land or rice payments

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absolute monarchy

system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power

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  • Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility

  • late 17th-early 18th century (became his primary residence around 1670)

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Mughal empire's taxation system where decentralized lords collected tribute/taxes for the emperor

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Taj Mahal

  • beautiful mausoleum (tomb) at Agra (India) built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife

  • illustrates syncretic blend between Indian and Arabic architectural styles

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tax farming

  • tax-collection system utilized by the Ottoman Empire to generate money for territorial expansion

  • the government hired private individuals to collect taxes

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Protestant Reformation

  • religious movement begun by German monk Martin Luther who began to question the practices of the Catholic Church beginning in 1519

  • split the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations: Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican Churches (among many others)

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95 Theses

  • arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517

  • ultimately led to Martin Luther's excommunication and the Protestant Reformation

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