Medical Terminology Chapter 4

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167 Terms

1

ankyl

stiff joint

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2

arthro/ articulo

joint

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3

burso

sac

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4

carpo

carpus (carpals)

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5

cervic

neck

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6

chondro

cartilage

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7

clavicle

cavicle

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8

coccyg

coccyx

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9

cortico

outer layer

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10

cost

rib

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11

cranio

skull

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12

femor

femur

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13

fibul

fibula

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14

humer

humerus

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15

ili

ischium

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16

kyph

hump

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17

lamin

lamina (part of vertebrae)

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18

lordo

bent backward

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19

lumbo

loin (low back between ribs and pelvis)

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20

mandibulo

mandible

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21

maxill

maxilla

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22

medull

inner region

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23

metacarp

metacarpus (metacarpals)

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24

metatars

metatarsus (metatarsals)

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25

myel

bone marrow; spinal cord

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26

ortho

straight

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27

osteo

bone

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28

patello

patella

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29

pector

pectoral (chest)

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30

ped/pod

child; foot

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31

pelv

pelvis

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32

phalang

phalanges

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33

prosthet

addition

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34

pub

pubis

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35

radi

radius

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36

sacr

sacrum

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37

scapul

scapula

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38

scoli

cooked

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39

spino

spine

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40

spondyl/ vertebro

vertebrae

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41

sterno

sternum

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42

synovi/ synov

synovial membrane

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43

tars

tarsus (tarsals)

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44

tibi

tibia

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45

ulno

ulna

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46

-blast

immature

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47

-clasia

to surgically break

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48

-desis

to fuse

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49

-listhesis

slipping

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50

-logic

pertaining to the study of

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51

-porosis

porous

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52

dis-

apart

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53

non-

not

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54

bone marrow

site of blood cell production

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55

osteoblasts

immature bone cells, gradually replace cartilage with bone

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56

osteocytes

matured osteoblasts that work to maintain the bone

(bones are dependent on adequate supply of minerals such as Ca and P)

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57

epiphysis

the end of long bones that is covered by articular cartilage

act as a cushion and prevents the bones in a joint from rubbing directly on each other

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58

periosteum

thin layer of connective tissue that covers surface of long bones

contain numerous blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels

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59

diaphysis

shaft of long bones

opens up to center called medullary cavity containing yellow bone marrow (consisting of fat cells)

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60

cortical (compact) bone

hard exterior of bone

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61

cancellous (spongy) bone

found inside bone, contain red bone marrow (manufactures most of the blood cells)

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62

condyle

smooth rounded portion at the end of a bone

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63

epicondyle

projection located above a condyle

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64

trochanter

large rough process for attachment of muscle

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65

tubercle

small rough process that provides the attachment for tendons and muscles

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66

tuberosity

large rough process that provides the attachment for tendons and muscles

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67

sinus

hollow cavity within bone

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68

fossa

shallow cavity or depression on bone

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69

cranium and facial bones

surround and protect the brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, and oral cavity from injury

chewing, moving the head → cranial bones (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid)

facial bones → mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, and lacrimal

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70

intervertebral disc

sits between vertebrae composed of fibrocartilage to provide cushion

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71

pectoral girdle

clavicle, scapula

attaches upper extremity to the axial skeleton

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72

upper extremities (UE)

humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, pahalnges

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73

Pelvic girdle

ilium, ischium, pubis, hip joint

articulated with the sacrum to attached to LE

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74

Lower extemities (LE)

femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

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75

synovial joint

many different types lots of movement (contain synovial fluid acting as shock absorber) ball and socket → femur

some contain a sac like structure called a bursa to reduce friction composed of connective tissue

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76

cartilaginous joint

limited movement (pubic symphysis)

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77

fibrous joint

no movement (skull bones)

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78

chiropractic

healthcare profession concerned with diagnosis and treatment of malignant conditions of spine and musculoskeletal system with intention of affecting nervous system and improving health

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79

orthotics

profession specializing in making appliances such as braces and splints

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80

podiatry

profession specializing in diagnosing treatment of disorders of feet and lower legs

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81

rheumatology

branch of medicine that diagnoses and treats musculoskeletal and autoimmune conditions

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82

arthralgia

joint pain

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83

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

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84

callus

mass of bone tissue that forms at fracture site during healing

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85

chondromalacia

softening of cartilage

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86

crepitation

noise produced by bones of cartilage rubbing together in conditions such as arthritis

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87

ostealgia

bone pain

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88

synovitis

inflammation of synovial membrane

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89

comminuted fracture

fracture in which bone is shattered

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90

compression fracture

fracture involving loss of heigh in vertebral body

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91

greenstick fracture

fracture where there is an incomplete break

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92

chondroma

tumor usually benign that forms in cartilage

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93

Ewing’s sarcoma

malignant growth found in shaft of long bones that spreads through periosteum

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94

exostosis

bony, outward projection from surface of bone (bone spur)

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95

myeloma

tumor that forms in bone marrow tissue

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96

osteochondroma

tumor usually benign that consists of both bone and cartilage tissues

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97

osteogenic sarcoma

most common type of bone cancer, usually begins in osteocytes in epiphysis of long bones

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98

osteomalacia

softening of bones caused by deficiency of calcium

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99

Paget’s disease

fairly common metabolic disease of bone of middle aged and older adults (bone destruction)

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100

rickets

defieicny in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood resulting in bone deformities

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