Bio 192 Exam 2 Review Terms

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Nucleotide

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108 Terms

1

Nucleotide

Monomer of DNA/RNA with phosphate group, sugar, and nitrogenous base

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2

Pentose sugar

Ribose or deoxyribose, makes up backbone of DNA/RNA

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3

Nitrogenous base

Building block of nucleic acids, purines (AG) and pyrimidines (CTU)

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4

3' to 5'

Direction in which nucleotides are connected

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5

Antiparallel

DNA strands run in opposite directions

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6

DNA denaturation

Occurs by breaking hydrogen bonds due to changes in pH, temperature, etc.

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7

Major groove

Wider groove along the length of the DNA double helix, accessible for protein binding

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8

Minor groove

Less accessible groove along the length of the DNA double helix

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9

Origin of replication

Specific DNA sequence where replication starts

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10

Helicase

Enzyme that 'unzips' DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds between base pairs

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11

Primase

Enzyme that synthesizes RNA primers and places them on the lagging strand

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12

Ligase

Enzyme that catalyzes the joining of Okazaki fragments

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13

DNA pol 1

Enzyme that removes RNA primer and replaces it with DNA

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14

DNA pol 111

Enzyme that forms the continuous leading strand and creates Okazaki fragments

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15

Replication fork

Y-shaped structure where DNA replication starts and strands separate

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16

Leading strand

Synthesized continuously in the 5' to 3' direction, RNA primer placed at the beginning

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17

Lagging strand

Synthesized discontinuously, with RNA primers for each fragment

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18

Okazaki fragment

Fragment of DNA synthesized in the lagging strand

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19

NTPs

Ribonucleoside triphosphates required for DNA synthesis (ATP, GTP, CTP, UTP)

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20

RNA polymerase

Enzyme that polymerizes RNA and unzips DNA when recruited to the promoter

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21

Promoter/Transcription terminator

Specific gene site that starts/stops RNA polymerase from adding ribonucleotides

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22

Polyadenylation sequence

Promotes transcript life and prevents degradation

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23

Template strand

Non-coding strand used as a template for complementary strand synthesis

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24

Non-template strand

The strand that is being used as the complementary strand

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25

Coding strand

Strand that codes for the correct nucleotide sequence for mRNA

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26

Heterochromatin

Tightly wrapped DNA around histones

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27

Euchromatin

More open DNA compared to heterochromatin, allows for binding to DNA

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28

Histone

Positively charged protein that DNA wraps around

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29

Nucleosome

Repeating unit of chromatin, negative DNA wrapped around positive histones

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30

Acetylation

Process of adding acetyl group to a histone, causing it to turn negative

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31

HAT (histone acetyl transferases)

Enzyme that adds acetyl groups to histones, causing chromatin to open up

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32

HDAC (histone deacetylases)

Enzyme that deacetylates histones, allowing chromatin to reform

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33

General transcription factor

Initiates basal transcription complex by binding to the promoter

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34

Regulatory transcription factor

Binds to enhancers/silencers, has specific DNA binding in the major groove

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35

Pioneer regulatory TF

Unique transcription factor that can bind to enhancers in heterochromatin

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36

Reporter construct

Used to locate enhancers/silencers by attaching to promoters and enhancers

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37

Reporter gene

Gene that visually reports the location of something (e.g., GFP)

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38

DNA methylation

Method of adding a methyl group to DNA to permanently silence gene expression

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39

Methyl-cytosine

Most common DNA methylation, occurs on CpG sites

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40

DNMT (DNA methyltransferase)

Enzyme that adds methyl groups to cytosines

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41

MBD (methyl-CpG-binding domain)

Recognizes methylated sites on DNA and can recruit HDAC or DNMT

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42

Hemi-methylated

When only one strand is methylated, provides a marker for the other strand

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43

Palindromic

DNA sequences that are the same, important for piggyback model and methylation

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44

De novo methylation

Process of adding methyl groups to cytosines in unmethylated DNA

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45

Post-transcriptional regulation

Includes mRNA processing, stability, and protein activation

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46

ShRNA (small nuclear RNAs/ribozymes)

Marks the beginning of introns and catalyzes their removal

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47

Spliceosome

Larger assembly of proteins that removes introns and fuses exons

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48

Intron

Non-coding sequences that are cut out of pre-mRNA

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49

Exon

Coding sequences that are kept in mRNA

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50

5'/3' UTR

Untranslated region of mRNA outside the coding sequence

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51

Alternative splicing

Produces mature mRNA from the same gene by skipping exons or keeping introns

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52

5' cap

Part of RNA processing that adds stability to the mRNA and protects from degradation

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53

Poly-A-tail

Part of RNA processing that stabilizes mRNA

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54

RNA-binding protein

Binds to 3' UTR and can degrade or prevent degradation of mRNA

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55

miRNA

Degrades mRNA and inhibits translation

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56

RISC

Complex that allows miRNA to function

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57

Chaperones

Provide sheltered environment for protein folding

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58

Proteasome

Recognizes ubiquitin-tagged proteins and degrades them

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59

Codon

3-nucleotide sequence that encodes for an amino acid

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60

Anticodon

3-nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to codon sequences

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61

Start/stop codon

Initiates translation and stops translation, respectively

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62

Codon redundancy

Multiple codons can code for the same amino acid

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63

tRNA/uncharged

tRNA without an attached amino acid

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64

tRNA charged

tRNA with an attached amino acid

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65

Small/large rRNA

rRNA found in small/large ribosomal subunits, involved in translation

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66

E site

Holds tRNA that will exit the ribosome

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67

P site

Holds tRNA with the growing polypeptide chain

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68

A site

Holds aminoacyl-tRNA

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69

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

Enzyme that matches amino acids with their corresponding tRNA

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70

G1

Phase where the cell accumulates ribosomes, organelles, and building blocks for DNA

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71

G2

Phase where the cell grows in size and prepares for mitosis

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72

S

Phase of DNA replication

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73

M

Phase of mitosis

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74

G0

Phase where DNA exits the cell cycle and never replicates again

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75

Cell cycle

Process that leads to replication and division of cells for growth

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76

Cell cycle checkpoints

G1 checkpoint ensures enough resources for replication, G2 checkpoint checks for proper replication and damage, metaphase checkpoint checks chromosome attachment

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77

Interphase

GI, S, G2 phases before mitosis

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78

Mitosis

Anaphase and telophase stages of cell division

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79

Centromere

Attachment point for spindle fibers on a chromosome

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80

Centrosome

Organelle essential for microtubule formation, duplicates during S phase

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81

Spindle apparatus

Network of microtubules that separates and aligns chromosomes

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82

Nuclear envelope

Protects nucleus and separates it from cytoplasm

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83

Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm to form two new cells

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84

Cell plate

Forms during plant cytokinesis to divide the cell into two

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85

Kinetochore

Attachment point for microtubules to move chromosomes

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86

Sister chromatid

Identical copies of a chromosome produced during DNA replication

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87

Homologous chromosome

Chromosomes with the same genes but different alleles

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88

Recombination

Process of rearranging DNA from two sources to create new sequences and genetic diversity

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89

Ploidy

Number of sets of chromosomes

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90

Meiosis 1

Prophase (includes crossing over), anaphase (paired chromosomes align), telophase (cell divides into haploid cells)

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91

Meiosis 2

Similar to mitosis, separates sister chromatids and creates genetic diversity

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92

Kinase

Enzyme that phosphorylates molecules using ATP

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93

Phosphatase

Enzyme that dephosphorylates molecules

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94

Cyclin

Protein that activates CDKs

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95

CDKs

Enzymes that drive cell cycle events and checkpoints

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96

MPF

Specific CDK complex that drives mitosis

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97

Signaling intermediates

Molecules/compounds involved in conveying information in a signaling pathway

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98

Effector

Component that carries out the response of a signal pathway

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99

Kinase

Enzyme that phosphorylates molecules

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100

Steroid hormones

Hormones that can pass directly through the membrane and regulate gene expression and metabolism

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