Bio 2160 Crousillac Exam 4

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What is an individual muscle cell?

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1

What is an individual muscle cell?

Muscle Fiber

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2

What are the clusters of proteins within each muscle cell?

Myofibrils

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3

A membrane has (single/multiple) nuclei

Multiple (multinucleated)

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4

Muscles cells (do/do not) divide in adulthood.

do not

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5

When muscle tissue dies, it (does/does not) grow back

does not

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6

Neuron that innervates a muscle cell.

Motor Neuron

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7

What is the name of the endoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells?

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

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8

What is stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

Calcium

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9

Where are T-Tubules found?

in the muscle membrane & runs deep into the myofibrils

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10

Where is the motor end plate found?

Muscle Cell Membrane

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11

Explain the process of moving your finger...

  1. Acetylcholine gets released from motor neurons then binds to receptors on the end plate (depolarization).

  2. Channels open: Sodium comes in, Potassium goes out.

  3. End plate potential develops action potentials.

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12

All contractions happen (at once/in a sequence)

in a sequence

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13

Thick and thin filaments come in contact with each other at _______.

crossbridges

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14

What two things do all muscle contractions require?

Calcium & ATP

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15

What keeps myosin from being in contact with actin?

Troponin

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16

What moves tropomyosin around?

-calcium binding site, actin binding site, tropomyosin binding site

Troponin

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17

What covers up the binding site on actin when muscles relax?

-extends along thin filaments, masks myosin binding site in absence of calcium

Tropomyosin

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18

How does a cramp occur?

By involuntary skeletal muscle contraction

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19

Name the regulatory proteins:

Tropomyosin & Troponin

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20

Made up of two strands of actin that form double helix

Thin Filaments

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21

Made up of myosin dimers bound together at tails, binding sites on heads (crossbridges) for actin, ATPase site

Thick Filaments

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22

______ gives permission for contractions to occur.

Calcium

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23

Name the steps of muscle contraction:

  1. Motor Neuron Action Potential

  2. End plate potential (excitation)

  3. Increase in muscle cell calcium levels

  4. Troponin and Tropomyosin conformation change

  5. Crossbridge cycling to sliding filaments (CONTRACTION)

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24

Calcium binds to ______ to move ______ out of the way, which causes a contraction.

Troponin/ Tropomyosin

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25

Another name for calcium channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Ryanodine Receptors

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26

What is the job of DHP receptors?

detect action potentials and when they do, they change shape and pull open calcium channels (Ryanodine receptors) so calcium goes out of SR into the muscle cell.

-voltage sensor

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27

The majority of calcium needed in a muscle cell comes from ______ receptors.

DHP

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28

When ATP binds to myosin, myosin now has a ______ affinity for actin.

Low

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29

When ATP binds to myosin, the muscle contraction (starts/stops) and myosin lets go of actin.

stops

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30

When attached to ADP, myosin has a _____ affinity for actin.

High

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31

When myosin is attached to ADP, actin binds to it, forming a ________ between myosin and actin.

Cross-Bridge

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32

What causes the myosin head to close causing the power stroke?

Release of an inorganic phosphate

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33

You need more ______ to relax muscles.

-this is why dead bodies are stiff

ATP

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34

Name the ways muscle contraction is terminated:

  1. Motor neuron input terminates

  2. End plate potentials terminate

  3. High myoplasmic calcium concentration shuts SR calcium channels

  4. Active calcium uptake through SERCA pumps on SR move calcium from cytoplasm to SR.

  5. Calcium dissociated from troponin

  6. Tropomyosin covers myosin binding sites on actin

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35

The most work that a single action potential can produce.

-The mechanical response or change in force/tension (measured in grams) of an individual muscle fiber, motor unit, or whole muscle to a single action potential

Twitch

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36

Muscle-generated force causes muscle shortening and lifts a load.

-load must be less than or equal to muscle tension. -Ex: grabbing a chair and actually lifting it. (moving the load)

Isotonic Twitch

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37

Muscle-generated force but does not shorten (load/force opposing muscle shortening is greater than muscle tension) the muscle can't shorten.

-Ex: pushing against a wall...it doesnt not move even though you are exerting force on it.

Isometric Twitch

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38

The amount of time it takes for a fiber to respond after you've told it to respond

-time of thinking about it until it actually happens

Latent Period

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39

Contain slow myosin

-hydrolyzes ATP to ADP and P slower, myosin head cocking is slower

Slow Twitch Fibers

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40

Contain fast myosin

-hydrolyzes ATP to ADP and P faster, myosin head cocking is faster

Fast Twitch Fibers

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41

T/F: Skeletal muscles can contain slow twitch fibers, fast twitch fibers, or both.

True

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42

T/F: Conditioning and training muscle can teach the muscle to respond more quickly.

True

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43

Anaerobic generation of ATP

Glycolytic

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44

Aerobic generation of ATP

Oxidative

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45

Fibers that have a high concentration of glycolysis enzymes

Glycolytic

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46

Fibers that have a low concentration of glycolysis enzymes

Oxidative

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47

Fibers that contain a lot of mitochondria

Oxidative

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48

Fibers that contain myoglobin (oxygen storage molecule)

Oxidative

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49

Fibers that are large in diameter

Glycolytic

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50

Fibers that have less blood flow and are lighter in color

Glycolytic

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51

What type of exercise increases oxidative fiber capacity?

-conversion of some glycolytic fibers into oxidative fibers

Low Intensity (yoga, pilates)

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52

What type of exercise increases glycolytic capacity & decreases oxidative capacity?

-conversion of some oxidative fibers into glycolytic fibers -fatigue is caused by lactic acid buildup -depletion of ACh

High Intensity (out of breath)

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53

T/F: smooth muscle has no sarcomeres but crossbridge cycling still occurs.

True

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54

Calcium for smooth muscle comes from (inside/outside) the cell.

Outside

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55

Calcium for skeletal muscle comes from (inside/outside) the cell.

Inside (sarcoplasmic reticulum)

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56

In smooth muscle, actin and myosin connect to connective tissue at ______ ______.

Dense Bodies

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57

Calcium binds to ______ in smooth muscle.

Calmodulin

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58

Calmodulin binds and activates what enzyme in smooth muscle allowing cross bridges to form?

MLCK: Myosin Light Chaine Kinase

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59

What shuts off smooth muscle contraction?

Inactivation of myosin by phosphatases, which remove phosphate group from myosin light chain.

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60

What would be the consequence if phosphatases stopped being produced in a cell?

smooth muscle would stay contracted too long

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61

Name the 3 components of the cardiovascular system

Blood, Blood Vessels, Heart

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62

What are the 2 ways to increase pressure in the heart?

  1. Add more blood

  2. Contract the chamber of the heart

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63

What are the 2 main components of blood?

Blood cells & plasma

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64

What are the components of blood cells?

Erythrocytes Leukocytes Platelets

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65

Red blood cells -carry oxygen bound to hemoglobin (contains iron)

Erythrocytes

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66

White blood cells -Mediate immune responses

Leukocytes

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67

Cell "fragments" -aid in blood clotting

Platelets

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68

Liquid portion of blood-yellow part -mostly water and proteins, antibodies, and ions.

Plasma

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69

Blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart (3)

Arteries, arterioles, capillaries

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70

Blood vessels that transport blood to the heart (2)

Veins & venules

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71

Pulmonary refers to:

Lungs

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72

Systematic refers to:

everything except the lungs

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73

Largest artery and blood vessel in the body & carries blood from the left ventricle to everywhere in the body. -high pressure

Aorta

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74

T/F: blood flows from the pulmonary circuit to the systematic circuit in the body.

True

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75

In systematic capillary beds, ______ leaves the blood and ______ enters.

O2 enters CO2 leaves

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76

Chambers are opened and closed by ______ differences between chambers.

pressure

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77

Heart valves allow (unidirectional/bidirectional) blood flow.

Unidirectional

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78

Valves that separate atria and ventricles. -mitral and tricuspid valves

Atroventricular valves

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79

Valves that separate ventricles and arteries. -aortic (left) and pulmonary (right) valves

Semilunar valves

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80

T/F: when a ventricle is relaxed it is because atrial pressure > ventricular pressure

-this causes the atrioventricular valve to open

True

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81

T/F: when a ventricle contracts it is because ventricular pressure > atrial pressure

-this causes the atrioventricular valve to close

True

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82

T/F: when a ventricle contracts it is because ventricular pressure > aortic pressure

-this causes the semilunar valve to open

True

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83

T/F: when a ventricle relaxes it is because aortic pressure > ventricular pressure

-this causes the semilunar valve to close

True

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84

Which ventricle is most muscular because it pumps blood to the entire body?

Left Ventricle

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85

_____ branches and carries blood to all organs & tissues in the systematic circuit.

Aorta

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86

If you stop breathing, the build up of _____ kills you before the lack of oxygen does.

CO2

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87

Blood is (oxygenated/deoxygenated) in the organ capillary beds.

deoxygenated

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88

Deoxygenated blood travels back to the heart through the ______ & ______ into the right atrium.

Superior & Inferior Vena Cavas

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89

Pressure is almost always (higher/lower) in the vena cavas than the heart.

higher

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90

Blood in the RIGHT atrium travels through _____ to get to the right ventricle.

tricuspid valve

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91

A healthy heart has:

A. fewer beats and less blood leaving

B. fewer beats and more blood leaving

C. more beats and less blood leving

D. more beats and more blood leaving

B. fewer beats and more blood leaving

-this is because your heart does not have to work as hard.

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92

The only artery to carry deoxygenated blood

Pulmonary artery

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93

Blood in the right ventricle flows through the ______ into the pulmonary artery.

pulmonary semilunar valve

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94

The only oxygenated vein in the body

pulmonary vein

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95

After blood is oxygenated in the lungs, it travels to the ______ through the pulmonary vein.

Left atrium

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96

From the left atrium, blood goes through the _____ into the left ventricle.

Bicuspid / Mitral Valve

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97

Meaning "the heart tells itself to contract"

-the heart contracts without neural input

Myogenic

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98

RHYTHM of the heartbeat is due to activity of ______ & ______.

-pace of the heart

Pacemaker Cells & Conduction Fibers

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99

FORCE of heartbeat is due to activity of _______.

-force of contraction

Contractile Cells

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100

Action Potentials are (longer/shorter) in skeletal muscle cells than cardiac muscle cells.

Longer

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