Review Sheet: Barron's AP Environmental Science 2023

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Ecosystem

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362 Terms

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Ecosystem

Community of living organisms interacting with non-living components

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Organisms

A living thing that can function on its own

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Species

Organisms that resemble each other

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Population

Same species occupying a specific area.

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Community

Population of different species.

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Symbiosis

Any type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms of the same or different species

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Amensalism

One species suffers, other is not affeced

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Commensalism

One species benefits, and the other isn’t.

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Competition

Rivalry of species over same resources

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Mutualism

Both species benefit

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Parasitism

One species benefits and the other is harmed

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Predation

Predator kills and eat their prey

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13

Saprottrophism

Organism that feeds on nonliving organic matter.

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Morphological partitioning

Two species shares same resources; evolved slightly different structures

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Spatial partitioning

Species use same resource occupying different areas.

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Temporal partitioning

Two species eliminate direct competition; utilizing same resource at diffrent times

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Deserts

An area that receives no more than 25 centimeters of rainfall a year

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Forests

Area with large number of trees

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Tropical Rainforests

Occurs in tropical areas of heavy rainfalls.

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Temperate Deciduous Forests

Occurs in association of seasonally wet and dry or monsoon climates

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Temperate Coniferous Forests

Occurs in low levels of precipitation

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Grasslands

Lands dominated by grasses.

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Southern Taiga

Also known as boreal forest

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Northern Taiga

Approaches tree line and tundra biome

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Grasslands

Lands dominated by grasses

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Savannas

A grassy plain with scattered individual trees

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Arctic tundra

Circles North Pole extending South to the Taiga; cold, dry, desert-like.

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Alpine tundra

Located in mountains where trees cannot grow

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Antarctic

Cold, remote area in the Southern Hemisphere

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Photic Zone

Uppermost layer of water.

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Neretic Zone (Sublittoral)

Extends to the edge of continental shelf.

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Littoral Zone (Intertidal)

Closest to the shore.

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Corals

Marine invertebrates that typically live in compact colonies

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Fringing Reefs

Grow near the coastline.

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Barrier Reefs

Similar to the coastline but separated by deeper lagoons

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Attols

Rings of coral that create protected lagoons; found in the middle of the sea

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Lakes

Formed where precipitation or runoffs fills depressions in Earths surface

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Benthic Zone

Bottom of the Lake

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Limnetic Zone

Well lit, open surface water

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Littoral Zone

Close to the shore that extends to depth penetrated by sunlight.

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Profundal Zone

No light regions

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Oligotrophic

Young Lake; deep cold; nutrient poor

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Mesotrophic

Middle-Aged Lake; moderate nutrient content.

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Eutrophic

Old lake; shallow, warm, large surface area

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Source Zones

Headwater streams; often begins as springs or snowmelt

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Transition Zone

Slower, warmer, wider, and lower-elevation moving streams

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Floodplain Zone

Result of large amounts of sediment and nutrients

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Riparian Areas

Lands adjacent to creeks, lakes, rivers, and streams that support vegetation

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Law of Tolerance

It states that the existence, abundance, and distribution of species depend on the tolerance level of each species to both physical and chemical factors

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Limiting Factor

Any abiotic factor that limits or prevents the growth of a population

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Carbon Cycle

The process in which carbon atoms continually travel from the atmosphere to the Earth and then back into the atmosphere

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Carbon Cycle

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Nitrogen Cycle

A process through which nitrogen is converted into many forms, consecutively passing from the atmosphere to the soil to organism and back into the atmosphere

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Nitrogen Cycle

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Phosphorous Cycle

A cycle that describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere

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Phosphorous Cycle

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Hydrologic Cycle

It involves the continuous circulation of water in the Earth-Atmosphere.

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Hydrologic Cycle

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Aquifer

Contains water in quantities sufficient to support a well or spring

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Recharge zone

The surface area above an aquifer that supplies water to the aquifer

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Unsaturated zone

The zone immediately below the land surface

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Water table

The level below which the ground is saturated with water

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Biomass pyramid

It shows how much organic mass is within each trophic level

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Energy Pyramids

These show the proportion of energy passed from one trophic level to the next-level consumers in an ecosystem

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Photosynthesis

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Cellular respiration

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Gross primary production (GPP)

The rate at which plants capture and fix a given amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time.

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Net primary production Formula

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Net primary production (NPP)

The remaining fixed energy is the rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy

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Biodiversity

Variability among species, between species, and of ecosystems

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Genetic diversity

Range of all genetic traits

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Species diversity

Number of different species in a specific area

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Ecosystem diversity

Range of habitats in specific area

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Generalists

Live in different types of environments and have varied diets.

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Specialists

Require unique resources and have limited diets

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Pioneer

Earlier successional plants; generalists.

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Keystone

Their presence contributes to the diversity of life; their extinction could lead to the extinction of other life forms

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Indicator

Their presence, absence, or abundance reflects a specific environmental condition

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Supporting Benefits

Provides more aid to the ecosystem.

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Regulating Benefits

Provided that help moderate natural phenomena

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Provisioning Benefits

Provides diversity of products.

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Cultural Benefits

Supports recreational services.

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Island Biogeography

It examines the factors that affect the richness and diversity of species living in these isolated natural communities

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Island

A suitable habitat for a specific ecosystem that is surrounded by a large area of unsuitable habitat

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Theory of Island Biogeography

It proposes that the number of species found on an "island" is determined by immigration and extinction of isolated populations

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Physiological Adaptation

Methods of temperature control or how food are digested.

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Behavioral Adaptation

Instincts, mating behavior, vocalizations.

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Structural Adaptation

Physical features.

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Short Term Adaptations

Develops from environments temporary changes

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Long-term Adaptations

Develops over long periods of time in response to natural selection

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Facilitation

Species modifies the environment, meeting the needs of others

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Inhibition

Species modifies the environment, not suitable for the environment

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Tolerance

Species are not affected by the presence of others

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Primary Succession

Species first colonize a lifeless habitat.

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Secondary Succession

Species recolonize a destroyed habitat

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Episodic Process

Occurring occasionally and at irregular intervals

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Periodic Process

Occurring at repeated intervals

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Random Process

Lacking a regular pattern.

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Generalists

Able to use a variety of environmental resources

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Specialists

Use specific set of resources

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