KIN 321 Exam 2

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What is vascular smooth muscle designed to do

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Health

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1

What is vascular smooth muscle designed to do

regulate blood flow to active tissue maintain systemic blood pressure

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2

What are the two primary sources of fluid loss?

urine Sweat

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3

High intensity exercise produces enough heat to raise body temperature _____ every ______ minutes. within 20 minutes it is life threatening and 40 minutes fatal

1 degree celsius 4-5

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4

A majority of the produced heat is transferred where via what

core, venous blood

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5

Greater than what % BW lost from dehydration is considered extremely dangerous?

7%+

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6

When the ambient temperature is higher than the skin, what are some unique sources of heat gain

Radiation convection conduction (If the skin was hotter than environment these would contribute to heat loss)

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7

Core temperature is about _____ degrees celsius

37

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8

Slight Dehydration can

significantly decrease VO2max and overall aerobic performance

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9

Is thirst a reliable sign of fluid need

NO IT IS NOT

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10

Dehydration is defined as

percentage loss of body weight

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11

Signs of acclimatization

decreased HR ncreased Sweat rate

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12

When should heat acclimatization occur

1-2 months precomp

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13

most adaptations occur within

1-2 weeks

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14

What ambvient temperatures will be ideal for acclimatization

38.5

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15

Heat will move down a gradient via

radiation conduction convection

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16

Allcimatizstion to exercise in the heat will

increase plasma volume

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17

Sweat becomes ____ with acclimatization

diluted to preserve elecgtrolytes

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18

You start sweating earlier or later when acclimatized

earlier

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19

What are the two competing demands on the CVsystem during exercise

o2 and nutrient delivery

heat delivery to the periphrey for cooling

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20

Sweat is largely derived from

PLASMA

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21

What happens to venous return during exercise in the heat

increased HR to maintain cardiac output

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22

What happens to plasma volume during exercise in the heat

decreases--> high blood pressure and sweat loss

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23

As exercise intensity increases past 60W

heat production surpasses heat lost

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24

The hypothalamus acts as the

thermostat Heatloss--> vasodilation Heat conservation--> vasoconstriction +shivering

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25

With exercise what is the gold standard

rectal

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26

Which method is relied on more heavily as ambient temperature increases

evaporation

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27

What is counterproductive sweating

water loss without cooling in hot, humid environment

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28

Evaporation is heavily influenced by

relative humidity (dryer the air the easier the sweat)

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29

What is the major mechanism of heat loss

the EVAPORATION of sweat off the skin (NOT WIPING IT OFF)

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30

Radiation accounts for ______ loss of heat in a neutral environment at rest

60%

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31

What improves the effectiveness of convection

movement of water or air across skin

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32

When the ambient temperature is higher than skin temperature how is heat lost

solely evaporation

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33

When the ambient temperature is less than skin temperature

Heat is lost through evaporation, radiation, conduction and convection

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34

What is heat exhaustion characterized by

rapid/weak pulse hypotension (fluid loss and vasodilation to skin and muscle) faintness profuse sweating

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35

How is heat exhaustion treated?

Fluid replacement and cool environment

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36

What is heat syncope?

loss of consciousness with cessation of exercise in the heat (independent or secondary to heat exhaustion)

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37

What is heat stroke?

failure of the hypothalamic temp regulation--> decreased sweat rate-->massive heat storage

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38

What is the mortality rate of heat stroke? Why is it so high?

20%+ Heart failure and cerebral edema

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39

What is exercise associated hyponatremia?

The dilution of plasma Na+ below 135mmol/L

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40

what are some symptoms of EAH

altered CNS function--> weakness, dizziness, lethargy, vomiting, headache, seizure

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41

Is EAH more prevalent in competitive athletes vs recreational?

recreational

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42

What is the largest predisposing factor of EAH

substantial weight gain from fluids

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43

How is sweat rate calculated?

[BW chane + (Fluid intake-excretion)]/time as a fraction of an hour

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44

What is the general recommendation for pre exercise hydration?

6mL H2O/kg BW every 2-3 hours in the days leading up to the event

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45

Pre event hydration guidelines

16-24 fluid ounces 2 hours before 12 ounces 15 min before

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46

Intraworkout hydration guidelines

8-12 ounces every 15 min during practice or event lasting longer than 1 hour (can be 6-8% CHO solution w some electrolytes)

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47

What should be the target hydration after exercise

consume 1.5L for every Kg weight lost

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48

Vascular smooth muscle vs skeletal muscle fibers

Smaller not striated contract more slowly capable of maintaining vascular tone with little energy

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49

What are the three factors that control vascular smooth muscle

Local Humoral Neural

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50

Why is there always slight vasoconstriction?

To guarantee adequate blood pressure and flow

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51

What is rate of blood flow determined by?

Blood pressure

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52

What is total peripheral resistance

the resistance to flow in the circulation

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53

What is TPR equal to

BP=Q * TPR

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54

Increased TPR leads to

hypertension

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55

When CO (Q) is constant (steady state, rest) blood flow (BP) is regulated by

changes in TPR via vasoconstriction or dilation

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56

What is Poiseuilles equation (describes flow in a tube)

Flow= (Pressure of Blood leaving heart- Pressure at distant site)piR^4/8LV

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57

What effect will increasing the radius of a blood vessel have on blood flow?

Vasodilation-->increase BF

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58

What effect will increasing the pressure difference have on blood flow

increased BF

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59

Length is

unchanged

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60

What effect will being well hydrated have on blood flow?

being well hydrated leads to an increase in blood flow due to a lower viscosity

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61

How do you accomplish a 10-15 fold increase in blood flow to active skeletal muscle during exercise?

Increase Cardiac Output Vasodilation of active muscles Maintain hydration status

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62

What are some local vasodilatory metabolites?

Increased H+ (dec. pH) Inc. K+ Inc. Adenosine and Lactate Inc. PCO2

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63

Blood flow varies to the ___ power of radius

4th power (small changes in radius lead to big changes in blood flow)

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64

A _% reduction in radius will lead to a __% reduced flow

16/50

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65

During active exercise where does blood flow get restricted to in order to give the active muscles blood

The gut gets reduced BF

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66

What percentage of blood goes to muscles during exercise

80-85%

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67

During exercise you vasoconstrict ______ and vasodilate at _______

gut, active muscle

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68

Local control is only

vasodilatory

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69

What provides the signal to link local metabolism to blood flow?

sympathetic innervation @ adrenal medulla

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70

Blood flow increases exponentially with

increased rate of metabolism

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71

Vasodilators

increased adenosine, lactate, hydrogen ion, potassium, PCO2 Decreased PO2

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72

Endothelium likely potentiates local vasodilation via the release of

Nitric Oxide

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73

What causes NO release

shear stress Response to CATS

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74

What increases NO secretion

endurance training

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75

Reactive hyperemia is an example of

local vasodilation

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76

Reduced blood flow through the kidney leads to the secretion of what

renin

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77

What is the function of renin

splits angiotensinogen from the liver to produce angiotensin I

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78

What is the function of ACE (angiotensin converting enzymes)

from the lungs converts angiotensin I into Angiotensin II and III

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79

What is angiotensin II

a potent vasoconstrictor

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80

What hormone is secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to Angiotensin II

aldosterone---> increased water retention by the kidneys

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81

Overall dehydration leads to

increased blood pressure (this same effect from the renin angiotensin system can result from huge loss of blood)

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82

Humoral control of blood flow results in

both vasodilation and constriction

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83

Neural control is almost exclusively

vasoconstrictor

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84

Do sympathetic nerve fibers innervate capillaries

NO (they innervate all other blood vessels)

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85

Neural control results in

large unrefined changes

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86

Two medications that are vasodilators

ACE inhibitors ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker---> blocks AII receptor)

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87

What parts of the body are most heavily innervated ? (blood vessel wise)

Kidney, gut, spleen

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88

What parts of the body are least innervated ?( blood vessel wise)

muscle, heart and brain

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89

Neural pushes blood flow to skeletal muscle generally, what pushes it to the active site

local control

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90

Does neural control distinguish between active/inactive skeletal muscle

No it does not

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91

Spinal cord injury may result in

lack of neural control so BP drops during exercise due to local vasodilation without compensatory vasoconstriction from neural

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92

The left ventricle gets blood from

left coronary artery

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93

The right ventricle gets blood from

right artery

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94

Myocardial BF may increase ______ from rest to max exercise because of

3x bc of a 5-20% NO primarily, secondarily from humoral/neural

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95

Diastolic BP should stay same or

decrease during exercise

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96

Ultimate goal of neural regulation of heart is

to maintain arterial blood pressure

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97

The ______ nervous system has primary neural control of the cardiac function

autonomic (heart is innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic)

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98

Sympathetic vasoconstriction (low-level input from vasoconstrictor area) is partially responsible for

resting BP

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99

Which division of the autonomic nervous system innervates the SA and AV node and atria (usually lowers the HR by inihibiting SA node)

Parasympathetic NS (dominant at rest)

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100

Which division of the autonomic system innervates the SA AV and ventricular myocardium (increase HR and SV)

Sympathetic NS

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