AP human unit 6

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Central Place

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118 Terms

1

Central Place

A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.

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2

Brownfield Remediation

The process of removing or sealing off contaminants so that a site may be used again without any health concerns

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3

Brownfields

contaminated industrial or commercial sites that may require environmental cleanup before they can be redeveloped or expanded

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4

decentralize

in an urban context, to move business operations from core city areas into outlying areas such as suburbs

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5

de facto segregation

segregation by unwritten custom or tradition

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6

automobile cities

Cities whose spatial layout, both in terms of extent and form, is dictated by the near ubiquity of individual automobile ownership.

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7

below market rate housing

Housing that costs much less than the going rate

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8

built environment

The man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighborhoods to the large-scale civic surroundings.

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9

Blockbusting

A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood

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10

Central Place Theory

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.

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11

diverse housing options

policy that encourages building quality housing for people and families of all life stages and income levels in a range of prices within a neighborhood

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12

city

conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics

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13

ecological footprint

the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.

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14

Edge City

A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.

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15

first urban revolution

The innovation of the city, which occurred independently in several separate hearths.

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16

fiscal squeeze

increasing limitations on city revenues, combined with increasing demands for expenditure

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17

compact design

Development that grows up (in the form of taller buildings) rather than out (in the form of urban sprawl)

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18

Concentric Zone Model

A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.

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19

Farmland Protection Policy Act (FPPA)

US law that grants municipalities oversight over federally funded development projects on farmland

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20

environmental injustice

refers to how minorities and the poor are harmed the most by environmental pollution

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21

environmental justice

The movement to fix environmental injustice

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22

Exurb

area beyond the suburbs

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23

Gravity Model

The idea that the closer two places are, the more they will influence each other.

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24

Exclusionary Zoning

A zoning law that effectively prevents certain groups (e.g. minorities, low-income individuals) from living in a community.

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25

Galactic City Model

represents the post-industrial city with its several, dispersed business districts. This model represents a distinct decentralization of the commercial urban landscape as the economy has transitioned to services as the leading form of production. Manufacturing has declined significantly and become specialized.

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26

gated community

a fenced or walled residential area where access is limited to designated individuals

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27

environmental racism

patterns of development that expose poor people, especially minorities, to environmental hazards

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28

Greenbelt

A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.

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29

Griffin-Ford Model

A model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.

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30

Housing Choice Voucher Program

Provides rental assistance to eligible consumers and allows funds to be used towards mortgage payment. Formerly called Section 8.

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31

metropolis

a large city

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32

range

The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service or business

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33

Inclusionary Zoning

zoning regulations that create incentives or requirements for affordable housing development

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34

infill development

The development of vacant parcels in existing urban and suburban areas.

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35

Hoyt Model (Sector Model)

An urban land use model showing wedges (sectors), based on main transport routes and social groupings.

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36

threshold

The minimum number of people needed to support the service or business

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37

land tenure

how property rights to land are allocated within societies, including how permissions are granted to access, use, control, and transfer land.

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38

NIMBY

Not In My Backyard attitude. People don't want things like landfills to be put where they live.

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39

rank-size rule

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.

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40

New Urbanism

A movement in urban planning to promote mixed use commercial and residential development and pedestrian friendly, community orientated cities. New urbanism is a reaction to the sprawling, automobile centered cities of the mid twentieth century.

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41

Scattered development

Residential developments are built far from a city center and are not integrated with one another

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42

redevelopment

The renovation and improvement of areas that were previously run down.

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43

Multiple Nuclei Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.

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44

site

An absolute location of a place on Earth

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45

situation

the relative location of. place in reference to its surrounding features, or its regional position with reference to other places

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46

Second Urban Revolution

The industrial innovations in mining and manufacturing that led to increased urban growth

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47

mortgage

a specific type of loan that is used to buy real estate, usually requires 30 years to pay back

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48

Micropolitan Statistical Area

An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.

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49

sprawl

Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.

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50

Urban hearth area

An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile River Valley where large cities first existed.

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51

Squatter Settlement

An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.

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52

smart growth

A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.

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53

urban heat island

In large cities, expanses of paved surfaces, particularly asphalt, absorbs heat during day and radiates heat at night. Sparse vegetatation and paved surfaces increase rain runoff, furthering reducing cooling effects. Temperatures in the cities are usually 3-5 degrees hotter than surrounding country side.

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54

suburb

a residential district located on the outskirts of a city

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55

Slow-growth cities

urban communities where the planners have put into place smart growth initiatives to decrease the rate at which the city grows horizontally to avoid the adverse affects of sprawl

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56

urban renewal

Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

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57

urban hierarchy

A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.

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58

Suburbanization

The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.

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59

urban

in, relating to, or characteristic of a city or town.

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60

urban footprint

The spatial extent of the impacts of urban areas on the natural environment.

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61

Zoning regulations

Property is zoned by commercial and residential, restricting where homes may be built.

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62

Urbanization

An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.

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63

Urban cluster

In the US, an urban area with between 2,500 and 50,000 inhabitants

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64

world city

Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.

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65

White Flight

the move of white city-dwellers to the suburbs

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66

urbanization rate

the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time

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67

Public Transportation

Buses, trains, subways, and other forms of transportation that charge set fares, run on fixed routes, and are available to the public.

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68

Zoning Ordinance

A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.

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69

Food Desert

An area that has a substantial amount of low-income residents and has poor access to a grocery store, defined in most cases as further than 1 mile.

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70

Gentrification

A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.

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71

Infrastructure

The basic structure or features of a system or organization

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72

New Urbanism

A counter to urban sprawl. Development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.

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73

Public Housing

Government-owned housing rented to low-income individual, with rents set at 30 percent of the tenant's income.

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74

Ghettos

Used to denote a section of city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, and economic pressure

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75

Rush Hour

The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.

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76

Sustainable Development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

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77

Primary Census Area (PSA)

In the United States, any CSA, any MSA not included in a CSA, or any uSA not included in a CSA

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78

Census Tract

An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.

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79

Hinterland (Market Area)

The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.

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80

Smart Growth

Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.

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81

Urbanization

An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.

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82

Boomburbs

A suburban area experiencing significant growth in population and prosperity

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83

Edge Cities

A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.

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84

Nonbasic Business

A business that sells its products primarily to consumers in the same settlement

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85

Urbanized Area

In the United States, an urban area with at least 50,000 inhabitants

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86

Counterurbanization

Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.

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87

Primate City

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.

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88

Informal Settlement

An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.

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89

Public Services

Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.

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90

Central City

An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit known as a municipality.

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91

Rank-size Rule

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.

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92

Global Cities

A city which is a primary node in the global economic network. Ex; NY, Tokyo, London

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93

Central Business District (CBD)

The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered. Also known as the downtown

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94

Nodal Cities

The organization of activity around some central place

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95

Basic Business

A business that sells its products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement

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96

Economic Base

A community's collection of basic industries.

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97

Service

Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.

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98

Megacities

Cities typically in the developing world, where high population growth and migration here caused them to explode in population; these areas are plagued by unplanned growth, terrible population and wide spread poverty

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99

Megalopolis

A continuous urban complex in the northeastern United States

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100

Sprawl

Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.

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