Kins 309-Exam 1 Review

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Physical Activity

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Study Guide/Video Review

102 Terms

1

Physical Activity

any bodily movement produced by contracting skeletal muscles

resulting in an increase in energy expenditure

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2

Exercise

PA that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful activity to improve or maintain any component of fitness for life or sport

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3

Health

a human condition with physical, social, and psychological dimensions, each characterized on a continuum with positive and negative poles

Positive health- wellness

Negative health- morbidity and mortality

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4

Physical Fitness

“a set of attributes” that people can have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity

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5

Morbidity

relative incidence of a particular disease in a specific locality.

Ex. diabetes, hypertension, depression, heart disease

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6

Mortality

a measure of the number of deaths (frequency) in a given population

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7

What does MET stand for?

metabolic equivalent of a task

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8

Why are MET’s important?

are used to estimate the energy expenditure for many common physical activities.

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9

MET- Light Exercise

1.6-2.9 METs

standing in line, walking slowly, washing dishes

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10

MET- moderate exercise

3-5.9 METs

golf, tennis, walking quickly 3 mph

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11

MET- vigorous exercise

= to 6 METs

jogging, running, fast walking, soccer, basketball

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12

CMR

Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Renal Disease

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13

S/S of cardiovascular, metabolic or renal disease

pain discomfort in chest, neck, jaw, arms

shortness of breath at rest or mild exertion

dizziness (during exercise)

orthopnea (breathlessness while laying down)

ankle edema (swelling evident at night)

palpitations or tachycardia

intermittent claudication

known heart murmur

unusual fatigue with usual activities

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14

PAR-Q+

the physical activity readiness questionnaire for everyone

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15

When to use PAR-Q+

self-screening for entry into moderate intensity exercise programs

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16

How many questions on PAR-Q+

7 on the first page

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17

ACSM Exercise Guidelines for Healthy Adults 18-65

should accumulate at least 150 min/week of moderate intensity exercise. (30-60 min a day)

OR

at least 75 min of vigorous intensity exercise (20-60 min a day) PLUS resistance train 2 days per week

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18

Why is overall physical activity an important part of exercise prescription?

their are lots of health benefits associated with increasing physical activity.

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19

What part of US has the biggest increase in these trends?

mid south

Louisiana, Oklahoma, mississippi, arkansas, kentucky, alabama

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20

Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

In diabetes type 1, the pancreas does not make insulin, because the body's immune system attacks the islet cells in the pancreas that make insulin. In diabetes type 2, the pancreas makes less insulin than used to, and your body becomes resistant to insulin.

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21

Health-related Components of fitness

ability to perform daily activities with vigor.

  • cardiovascular fitness

  • muscular endurance

  • muscular strength

  • body composition

  • flexibility

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22

Skill-related Components of fitness

sport, motor skill performance

  • power**

  • speed

  • agility

  • balance

  • reaction time

  • coordination

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23

Basic Training Principles

principles of

overload

progression

recovery

overuse

specificity

reversibility

individual differences

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24

principle of overload

muscles adapt to a greater resistance

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25

principle of progression

amount and intensity of your exercise should be increased gradually

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26

principle of recovery

components

  • rest

  • hydration

  • nutrition

  • mobility/flexibility

  • mental health/stress reduction

  • high quality sleep

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27

principle of specificity

physiological and metabolic responses and adaptations to exercise training are specific to type of exercise and muscle groups involved

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28

principle of overuse

violating the principle of overload; overdoing it

may result in injuries

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29

principle of reversibility

use or lose it

positive physiological effects and health benefits of regular PA and exercise are reversibile

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30

Individual differences

varying age, fitness levels, and varied responses to a given exercise stimulus.

each person has a different response to exercise

experience

genetics

exercise history

risk factors

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31

Health Concerns with Overweight/Obese Individuals

coronary heart/artery disease

stroke

hypertension

dyslipidemia

osteoarthritis

sleep apnea

type 2 diabetes

some cancers

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32

Society Concerns with Overweight/Obese Individuals

Could not find

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33

Mental benefits of PA and Exercise

increased:

self-esteem

self-confidence

overall cognitive performance

creativity

sleep quality

reduced:

stress

depression

anxiety

cognitive decline

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34

physical benefits of PA and exercise

improved:

ADLs

muscular strength endurance

bone density

mobility

weight management

balance

reduced:

CVD

hypertension

type 2 diabetes

some cancers

chronic health conditions/disabilities

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35

Dose-Response Concept

relationship between the dose of exercise required to elicit the desired response

dose- amount= total weekly energy expenditure

frequency, intensity, or duration

response- relative risk reduction of morality, physical fitness benefits, risk factor reduction

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36

Sudden Cardiac Death

the abrupt loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness

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37

HCM

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

heart muscle becomes thickened makes it harder to pump blood.

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38

Common cause of SCD in younger athletes

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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39

ACSM Pre-participation Flowchart

knowt flashcard image
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40

CVD Risk Factors

Age

family history

smoking

physical inactivity

body mass/waist circumference

hypertension

dyslipidemia

blood glucose

if one risk factor isn’t known it counts as risk factor

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41

Age

men over 45

women over 55

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42

family history

any heart condition including; myocardial infarction, bypass surgery/angioplasty, sudden death

before the age of 55 in male relatives

before the age of 65 in male relatives

must by 1st degree relative

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43

smoking

current smoker

those that quit within previous 6 months

exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

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44

physical inactivity

not meeting 75-150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity

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45

body mass/waist circumference

BMI greater or equal to 30kgm2

Waist circumference over

102 cm /40 in for men

88 cm/ 35 in for women

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46

hypertension

systolic blood pressure greater than 130mmHg

diastolic blood pressure greater than 80 mmHg

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47

dyslipidemia

LDL above 130

taking lipid lowering medication

total cholesterol over 200

HDL is positive risk factor. it cancels out other risk factors if over…

40 in men and 50 in women

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48

blood glucose

pre-diabetes if over 100

diabetes if over 126

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49

Transtheoretical Model of Change

change as a process involving progress through five stage. describes how people either modify a problem behavior or acquire a positive behavior

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50

stage 1- pre contemplation

-not ready to take action

-no intention to take action in next 6 months

-cons outweigh pros of being active

-misinformed or uninformed

-denial

-unaware

-several failed attempts- demoralized

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stage 2-contemplation

intending to be active in the next 6 months

-thinking about taking action

-intend to start in next 6 months

-more aware of pros/cons of engaging in PA

-convinced but not fully committed

-costs may still outweigh the benefits doubt/delay

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52

stage 3- preparation

planning- beginning an activity but may be irregular.

getting ready to take action

intend to be active in next 30 days or immediate future

may have a specific plan to get started or are doing some PA but not meeting ACSM guidelines

smart goals

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53

stage 4-action

behavior change has recently started

actively involved but less than 6 months

“I’m doing it now”

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54

stage 5- maintenance

regular participation for at least 6 months

“i’ve been doing it consistently for at least six months”

making PA a habit

becoming part of their identity

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55

Strategies to help clients move from one stage to next within TMC.

Having clients think of pros/cons

Helping clients make SMART goals

Helping clients to identify specific plans/people/places to support change

Follow-Up with client

support self-efficacy

non judgmental

motivation

discuss relapse

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56

Social Cognitive Theory

key factor is self- efficacy. the more confident one feels in their capabilities and skills to succeed, the more likely they will engage in this behavior

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57

reciprocal determinism

interaction between individuals and their environment. main factors

-environment

-individual personality characteristics/experiences

-behavioral factors

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58

Self-Determination Theory

motivation exists on a continuum.

three psychosocial needs

-self-determination or autonomy

-competence

-relatedness (meaningful social interactions with others)

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59

Intrinsic Motivation

as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequence.

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60

Extrinsic Motivation

a motivation to participate in an activity based on meeting an external goal, garnering praise and approval, winning a competition, or receiving an award or payment.

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61

Why we discourage adding extrinsic motivation if client is already intrinsically motivated?

Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation when used in certain situations or used too often. The rewards may lose their value when you reward behavior that was already intrinsically motivating. Some people also perceive extrinsic reinforcement as coercion or bribery.

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62

Concept of cue/routine/reward when changing habit

the key to change- use the same cue, provide the same reward, change the routine

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63

Barriers related to exercise adherence

lack of time or energy

lack of support, or workout partner, adequate facilities

poor health

self-conscious

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64

Four strategies to help clients adhere to exercise

demonstrate support for client

help with organization and planning

helps client overcome barriers

gives praise and acknowledgement

motivates clients

helps set goals

positive feedback

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65

How does exercise boost memory directly and indirectly?

directly- stimulating physiological changes (lower insulin resistance +inflammation. higher growth factors+ health of brain cells) brain part the controls thinking + memory is bigger

indirectly- improves mood + sleep. decreases stress + anxiety

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66

What exercise is usually studied in exercise/memory research?

walking

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67

What did researchers find in study about tai chi?

had potential to enhance cognitive function in older adults w/ executive function. ( planning, working memory, attention, problem solving)

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68

How long does it take to start seeing cognitive benefits of exercise?

6 months

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69

cholesterol

is a fat like substance. lipoproteins

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70

sources of cholesterol

liver

food intake

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71

3 reasons body needs cholesterol

make hormones

make vitamin D

make bile

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72

two types of proteins that carry cholesterol

low density lipoprotein

high density lipoprotein

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73

role of LDL

travels through bloodstream delivering cholesterol to cells that need it.

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74

if body has too much LDL…

can build up on the walls of arteries

forms plaque

plaque buildup limits blood flow

causes coronary heart disease

^ risk of heart attack/stroke

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75

where is HDL made in body

liver

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76

role of HDL

helps remove excess cholesterol from your cells, tissues, and plaque

returns excess to liver and then removes it

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77

blood pressue

the amount of force caused by blood pressing against the walls of arteries

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78

role of right ventricle

pushes oxygen poor blood to lungs to pick up oxygen

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role of left ventricle

pushes oxygen rich blood to your body

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80

four main factors that affect pressure on artery walls.

proportional-

cardiac output

blood volume

blood viscosity

inverse-

resistance

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81

hypertension guidelines

new-

top # 130-139 or +

bottom # 80-89 or +

old-

top # 140 or more

bottom # 90 or more

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82

goal of these guidelines to decrease the risk of these diseases

heart attack, stroke, kidney disease

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83

type 2 diabetes is more common in people with these characteristics

overweight, sedentary, middle age

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84

relationship between glucose and insulin (healthy)

when blood glucose increases, pancreas secretes insulin. when insulin binds to its receptors it causes glucose transporters to come to surface of cell. facilitates entry of glucose into these cells

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85

what goes wrong with type 2 diabetes

production of insulin is low and there can be resistance to insulin. circulating insulin fails to facilitate absorption of glucose into cells, and controls levels of blood sugar

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86

common cause. of SCD in adults 20-30s

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

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87

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

genetic abnormality of the proteins used by heart muscle cells. the heart becomes abnormally thick in one area and when heart pumps, it has trouble ejecting blood past the thick part

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88

why does this disease happen with exercise

w/ exertion and dehydration

blood volume decreases

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89

why do runners die even with AED available

they go through ventricular tachycardia which can only be reversed by AED during 1- 2 minutes then it progresses to ventricular fibrillation. O2 is past return point.

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90

prevention methods to detect symptoms of heart issue in younger adults

getting a cardiac echogram, echocardiogram or external exam of heart with ultrasound

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91

self-determination theory

the more self-determined we are that is the more we’re doing what we want to do and aren’t being forced to do- the happier + more successful we tend to be

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92

three basic needs of self-determination theory

autonomy- choice made by you

competence- know what your doing

relatedness- connects you to other people

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93

how did St.Johns football coach incorporate SD theory with his team

ditched the laps, calisthenics.

he let players get water between plays, choose plays to run, implemented autonomy + competence into practice

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94

explain 2004 study related to intrinsic motivation

those who were intrinsic motivation after 6 months outnumbered extrinsically motivated people 3 to 1

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95

5 ideas from positive psychology to keep clients upbeat/motivated

  1. understand that pessimism is not a choice

  2. make workouts fun

  3. devise an engaging workout

  4. frame progress in a positive way

  5. remember that other people matter

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96

two key points

having small successes

making a workout fun

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97

five areas that can motivate people to continue to exercise

  1. demographic + biological factors

  2. psychological, cognitive + emotional factors

  3. behavioral attributes + skills

  4. social + cultural

  5. physical environment. + physical activity characteristics

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98

most likely to dropout of exercise

  • people who over estimate their expectancies

  • people who smoke

  • low self-worth

  • bad body image

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99

what changed for linda

she joined a “life change” program w/ walking

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100

what error did linda make before?

she skipped the preparation phase

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