Bio Psych Exam 3

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What are the two main types of techniques used to study the brain?

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What are the two main types of techniques used to study the brain?

Manipulation techniques and measurement techniques

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Manipulation Techniques

A technique that alters the structure or function of the brain; the resulting effects are observed

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Measurement Techniques

Brain activity is measured during a task with an aim to identify the brain areas involved in performing that task

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What are some brain manipulation techniques?

Lesions, brain stimulation (DBS and TMS), optogenetics

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Lesions

Destroy a part of the brain; assumes that the function of a specific brain area is the behaviors lost after damaging that part of the brain area

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What do you need to make a causal claim?

You need a proper control group

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Sham-lesions

"Placebo" procedure that replicates the lesion preparation process, but without taking out the lesion so this make include anesthesia and surgery

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What are the issues of lesions?

-No control group for humans; only for animals (sham lesions) -Diffused damage; not localized (hits a bunch of brain regions, not sure what causes what) -Cortical reorganization; Brain can reorganize to account for damage -Hard to know if behavior was even localized

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Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

Electrodes implanted into a brain region and emits pulses of electrical current; used to treat Parkinson's and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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What are the problems with DBS?

Surgery Risks (very invasive); incorrect placement of this can cause potential harm

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

A noninvasive technique that sends magnetic pulse through the cranium that depolarizes the cortical cells; useful for depression

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What are the problems with TMS?

-Localizing issues and difficult to make interpretations -Reproducibility issues -Safety issues if used by a non-expert

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Optogenetics

Technique that uses genetic engineering to express membrane channels to be light sensitive; insert proteins into particular areas and apply light; great to understand neural circuity

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What are the problems with Optogenetics?

-Identify how cells respond with the light stimulation, but not how the cells respond normally -Want to be more precise with neuron subtypes -Only on animal scale level

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What are some measurement techniques?

-Electrical activity (single/multicellular recordings, EEG/ERP, MEG) -Functional Brain Imaging (fMRI and PET) -Structural Methods (CT and MRI)

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Cellular Recordings Types

-Intracellular recordings places electrodes directly into a neuron -Extracellular recording places electrodes in fluids surrounding the neurons to record electrical activity -Single Cellular uses one electrode; multicellular uses multiple (typically in extracellular)

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EEG

-Put electrodes on scalp to measure "brain waves" -Average out summed graded potential of many neurons to cancel out noise -Sometimes has rhythmic waves

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ERP (Event Related Potential)

-Uses EEG and synchronizes it with a task -has great temporal resolution -bad spatial resolution! -Need to show same stimulus a lot and average out trials to get a distinct wave -Can have positive and negative waves

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What does P300 mean in ERP?

Positive Wave 300 ms

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What are the problems with ERP?

-Difficult to figure out where the electrical signals originate from -Skull distorts signals

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electrocorticography (ECoG)

-Intercranial EEG -Usually paired with a form of stimulation

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MEG

-Uses magnetic waves so waves not distorted by skull -Better spatial resolution than EEG -super duper mega expensive because you need mega strong magnet + bunker to shield out earth's magnetic field

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PET

-Uses a radioactive tracer injected into the bloodstream and tracer binds to something -Used with biomarkers of disorders and pathologies -Has a lack of structure with its imaging -Helpful for task related activation and metabolism/neurochemistry

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What are the cons of PET imaging?

-Lower spatial resolution -Slower temporal resolution -Doesn't image brain structure -Uses radioactive substances

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MRI

-Amazing spatial resolution; shows brain structure (white/gray matter, CSF, bone) -Uses extremely strong magnets -Noninvasive -invented at washu lol

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fMRI

-Measured BOLD; indirect measurement of neural activity

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BOLD

Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent

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What are the traits of a oxy-hemoglobin?

-Diamagnetic (repelled by magnet), normal BOLD signal

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What are the traits of a deoxy-hemoglobin?

-Paramagnetic (attracted to magnet), low BOLD signal

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What cause higher BOLD signals?

A surplus of oxygenated blood; this can be a result of brain needing more oxygen so there's increased blood flow to brain with blood that has oxygen

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What causes the initial dip in the BOLD graph of fMRI?

This is when a neuron consumes oxygen and that causes us to have more deoxygenated hemoglobin than oxygenated hemoglobin causing the BOLD signal to decrease.

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What causes the overshoot of the BOLD graph?

In response to the undershoot, there is increased bloodflow to that region of the brain which drastically increasing the BOLD signal.

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What causes the undershoot of the BOLD graph?

Relaxation of the venous system

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Voxel

3D Pixel

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How do we get from BOLD graph to imaging?

-We average out voxels of a region to get a color -Map that onto the brain

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Pros of fMRI

-Fine spatial resolution -Fine temporal resolution -Noninvasive

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Problems of fMRI

-Indirect measure of neural activity -temporal and spatial res have their limits -Activated areas may be associated but not necessary for tasks

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Structural Methods

Method focuses more on taking snapshots rather linking to behavior due to behaviors being more dynamic; often combined with another method

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Computerized Tomography

-3D X-ray -Cheap and fast -Bad spatial resolution but identifies major structural problems; shows bone better than MRI -Used when magnets cannot

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Problems of MRI

-Movement matters (have to stay still!) -Expensive -Statistical issues

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What are the traits of a deoxy-hemoglobin?

-Paramagnetic (attracted to magnet), low BOLD signal

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Psychopharmocology

The study of drugs that affect the nervous system and behavior

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Drug

Exogenous chemical not needed for normal cellular functioning and it significantly alters functions of the cells in the body when taken at low doses

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Are neurotransmitters drugs?

No, they are endogenous and produced by us naturally

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How does drugs affect people?

-They can change physiological processes and behaviors -They have sites of actions in which they can bind onto the cells of the body and affect the biochemical processes

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Pharmacokinetics

What the body does with the drug; movement of the drug ex. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion

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Pharmacodynamics

What the drug does to the body ex. Action mechanisms, adverse effects

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Absorption

How we administer the drug into our body; first step of pharmacokinetics ex. oral, IV injection, inhalation

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Routes of Administration

Ways to insert drug into body/Absorption

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Cyclobenzaprine

A drug that is a muscle relaxant

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Distribution

Where the drug goes after it's absorbed in us; second step of pharmacokinetics

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Blood-Brain Barrier

-Barrier that restricts the indiscriminate access of certain substances in the bloodstream to CNS -layers of cells that prevents substances in the circulating blood from freely entering the extracellular fluid of the brain

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What is the blood-brain barrier made of?

Astrocytes

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What part of our body receives most of the drug?

Liver, kidney, and other well-irrigated organs

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How is the drug distribution towards muscles, most viscera, and adipose (fatty) tissues?

It is slower because they are less well-irrigated

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Placental Transfer of Drugs

Some drugs can make it through while some cannot

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What parts of us do we lack Blood Brain Barrier in?

-Pituitary Gland -Pineal Gland (day/night cycle) -Area Postrema (vomit toxic substances)

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Metabolism

Set of reactions and transformations that drug undergoes in the body; third step of pharmacokinetics

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Oral Intake of Drug Pathway

Goes to our stomach -> Small Intestine -> Gut Wall -> Liver -> Brain

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Excretion

Elimination by body of residues of drug metabolism; last step of Pharmacokinetics

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What body part is most important for excretion?

KIDNEY!!

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Name some of the excretion pathways

Renal (kidney), Breastmilk, Biliary (bile) and fecal, sweat saliva tears, and pulmonary (lungs)

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What happens if we keep taking very high doses of a drug?

At a certain dose, the effect of the drug starts to level off where having higher doses of a drug does not increase the effect of the drug.

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Margin of Safety

A dosage range where the drug is still effective while minimizing the side effects/negative effects of the drug

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Tolerance

Decrease in effectiveness of a drug that has been administered repeatedly -decrease in effectiveness of binding -less sensitive receptor or number of receptors decreases -coupling less effective

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Withdrawal Symptoms

Symptoms that occur after chronic use of a drug is reduced or stopped

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Sensitization

Increase in effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly -less common than tolerance

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Can you get both sensitization and tolerance?

Yes! ex. repeated use of cocaine increases the effects of the jerkiness/movement disorder but euphoric effect might even show some tolerance

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Agonists

A drug that mimics or facilitates the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic; helps the system and the NT's goal ex. precursors

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Antagonists

A drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell; hurt's the NT's goal ex. prevent synthesis of the NT

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Direct Agonist

A drug that binds with and activates a receptor; membrane channel opens -competitive

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Direct Antagonist

A drug that binds with a receptor but does not activate it; prevents the natural NT from binding to the receptor and does not open the membrane channel -competitive

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Indirect Agonist

a drug that binds to a different site from the NT but facilitates the NT's function -noncompetitive

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Indirect Antagonist

a drug that binds to a different site from the NT but inhibits the NT's function -noncompetitive

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How many types of psychotropic medications are there?

5 types:

  1. Antidepressants

  2. Mood stabilizers

  3. Anti-anxiety medications

  4. Stimulants

  5. Anti-psychotics *drug that falls into these categorically aren't necessarily used to treat those specific disorders

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Antidepressants

Used to lift mood out of a depressive episode -many are reuptake inhibitors ex. SSRI, SNRIs, etc. -MAOI (MAO Inhibitor) - MAO typically breaks down some of the NTs so MAOI serves to prevent MAO from functioning to allow the NT last longer -Tricyclics

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What do antidepressants treat?

Depression... anxiety, phobias, PTSD, etc.

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Manic Episode

mood disorder where mood is abnormally high

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Depression

your low point

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Hypomania

elevated mood but not as high as an manic episode

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What does dopamine do?

involved with movement, pleasure, reward, and more

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What is norepinephrine involved with?

regulates mood, wakefulness, cognition, and other functions

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What is epinephrine involved with?

regulates mood, anxiety, sleep, and other

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Reduced Positive Affect

Going from high to low; lots of interest/pleasures, loss of energy/enthusiasm -DA and NE dysfunction

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Increased Negative Affect

Lows become even lower -ex. negative feelings become worse; more disgust, more guilt and anxiety -5HT and NE dysfunction

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Mood Stabilizers

-Stabilizes mood -REGULATES mood so it doesn't get too low or too high (prevents depression or mania) -ex. Lithium, anticonvulsants

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Mood Disorder

all forms of depression and bipolar disorder

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Anti-Anxiety Medication

-AKA Anxiolytic -types of medication include: SSRIs and SNRI (anti-depressant too!) -Anticonvulsants -Benzodiazepenes

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How much overlap does depression and anxiety have?

A LOTTT!! They also have genetic overlap

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Benzodiazepene

-Depressants/sedatives; feeling of calmness, drowsiness -GABA agonists (GABA is inhibitory) -inhibits arousal system -lots of potential for withdrawal system and dependence -ex. Xanax

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Should you take alcohol and benzodiazepene together?

Alcohol is also a GABA agonist by maximizing time that GABA channel stayas open. Benzodiazepene increases frequency that GABA channels stay open. These summed effects can have detrimental effects such as depressing your respiratory system

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Stimulants

-drugs that bring you up as opposed to anxiolytics bringing you down ex. Amphetamines (Adderral and Ritalin)

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Why is taking adderall (a stimulant) and alcohol potentially bad for you?

Adderall is a stimulant which gets cancels by the effects of alcohol which is a depressant. This causes people to intake more alcohol to feels the effect of the alcohol which can lead to alcohol poisoning

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Anti-Psychotics

-AKA Neuroleptics -Two types: Typical and Atypical

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Psychosis

Condition where people lose touch with reality; hard to tell what's real and what's not real

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Typical Antipsychotics

Drug that blocks dopamine at the D2 Receptor; tight binding (really blocking); high risks of side effects

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Atypical Antipsychotics

Drug that blocks dopamine at D2 Receptor loosely; less risks of side effects compared to its counterpart, useful!

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Order of Operations

  1. Antipsychotic related issue

  2. Substance Abuse

  3. Mood Disorders

  4. Anxiety Disorders

  5. ADHD Treatment

  6. Nicotine Dependence

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TRUE OR FALSE: Not all drugs lead to substance abuse disorder

FALSE!!! Any drugs can lead to a substance abuse disorder

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Substance Use Disorder

Complex Brain Disorder characterized by: -Compulsion to seek and take drug -Impaired control in limiting drug -Progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests -Persistent to take the drug despite the consequences -Relapse

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