Psych Quiz 3

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secondary sexual characteristics

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301 Terms

1

secondary sexual characteristics

Physical signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs

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2

primary sexual characteristics

Organs specifically needed for reproduction.

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3

gonadal sex

Refers to sex as indicated by the presence of ovaries or testes.

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4

testosterone

Stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

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5

sadism

Sadism derives sexual pleasure from inflicting pain or humiliation.

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6

masochism

Derives pleasure from receiving pain or humiliation.

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7

exhibitionists

Often feel inadequate and have compulsions to prove their manhood.

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8

gender role socialization

The process of learning gender behaviors considered appropriate for one's sex in a given culture.

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9

androgyny

Presence of both "masculine" and "feminine" traits in a single person.

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10

gender variant

Describes someone who was assigned female at birth but identifies more with being a male.

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11

excitement phase

The phase of the sexual response cycle marked by changes in the pelvic region, general physical arousal, and increases in heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, and rate of breathing.

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12

tubal ligation

A surgical sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent sperm from reaching a mature ovum.

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13

erogenous zones

Areas of the body that produce pleasure, provoke erotic desire, or both.

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14

resolution

Sexual response phase that follows after an individual has experienced orgasm.

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15

refractory period

The short period after orgasm during which males are unable to again reach orgasm.

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16

premature ejaculation

An orgasm disorder in males in which he reaches climax too soon.

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17

sexual script

Specifies the formal and informal norms for acceptable or unacceptable sexual behavior.

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18

supernormal stimulus

A stimulus that is more effective at triggering the fixed action pattern than the actual stimulus found in nature.

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19

acquaintance rape

Forced intercourse that occurs in the context of a date or other voluntary encounter.

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20

gender role stereotypes

Oversimplified, preconceived beliefs about the gender roles of men and women.

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21

rape myths

False beliefs about rape that tend to blame the victim and increase the likelihood that some men will think that rape is justified.

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22

date rape

Forced sexual intercourse that takes place in a dating situation.

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23

marital rape

Forcible sex between people who are legally married to each other.

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24

desire disorder

A person has either little or no sexual motivation or sexual feelings or has too much.

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25

secondary erectile disorder

A man was able to achieve an erection, but is no longer able to.

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26

sensate focus

A process of touching and communication used to enhance sexual pleasure and to reduce performance pressure.

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27

delayed ejaculation

A persistent interruption or absence of orgasm during lovemaking.

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28

sexual dysfunction

Refers to problems with sexual desire, arousal, or response.

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29

dyspareunia

Pain in a female's genitals before, during, or after sexual intercourse.

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30

fetishistic

A paraphilic disorder where the focus of paraphilia is on nonhuman objects.

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31

civic engagement

Individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern.

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32

gunnysacking

Saving up feelings and complaints to use as ammunition in a fight.

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33

aphrodisiac

Substance that increases sexual desire or pleasure.

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34

passive

Gender role socialization expectation for women.

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35

conquering

Gender role socialization expectation for men.

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36

castration

The surgical removal of the testicles or ovaries.

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37

hypoactive sexual desire

A persistent, upsetting loss of sexual desire.

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38

plateau phase

The second level of sexual response during which physical arousal intensifies.

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39

paraphilic disorders

Deviations in sexual behavior such as pedophilia, exhibitionism, fetishism, voyeurism.

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40

expressive behaviors

Behaviors that express or communicate emotion or personal feelings.

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41

masculine traits

Self-reliant, defends beliefs, independent, athletic, assertive, forceful, strong personality, leadership, dominant, etc.

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42

feminine traits

Affection, nurturance, sensitivity, compassion, and emotional expressiveness.

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43

congenital adrenal hyperplasia

A form of intersexualism in which a genetic female has internal female sexual structures but masculinized external genitals.

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44

prenatal hormone theory

Sexual orientation reflects brain differentiation that occurs in response to circulating levels of androgens in the prenatal environment.

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45

character

The qualities that a person has been evaluated as possessing.

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46

personality

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

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47

self-concept

Ability to perceive our personality.

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48

personality trait

A stable quality that a person shows in most situations.

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49

humanistic theories

Theories of personality that are more subjective and personal.

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50

social learning theory

A theory that combines learning principles with cognitive processes, socialization, and modeling to explain behavior including personality

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51

behaviorist theories

Theories of personality that place greater importance on the external environment and on the effects of conditioning.

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52

self-image

A person's mental picture of him or herself.

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53

trait theories

Personality theories that attempt to describe personality with a small number of key attributes or factors.

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54

halo effect

The tendency to generalize a favorable (or unfavorable) impression to the whole personality.

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55

situational test

Personality assessments that expose people to actual conditions rather than describing them.

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56

projective test

A personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.

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57

rating scale

A list of personality traits or aspects of behavior on which a person is rated.

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58

behavioral assessment

Measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client's thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context.

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59

objective test

A test that gives the same score when different people correct it.

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60

personality questionnaire

A paper-and-pencil test intended to uncover characteristics of one's personality.

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61

hyperchondriasis

Excessive worry about one's physical health.

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62

schizophrenia

Aspect of personality that refers to emotional withdrawal and unusual or bizarre thinking and actions.

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63

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2

A standardized personality test mostly characterized by its distinct ability to correctly identify people with psychological problems.

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64

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire

A projective test that is especially efficient at uncovering feelings about social situations and relationships.

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65

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective test that reveals more about a person's relationships.

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66

psychopathic deviate

Aspects of personality measured by the MMPI-2 test that refers to emotional shallowness in relationships and a disregard for social and moral standards.

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67

norms

Standards used to compare an individual's performance on a test with that of others.

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68

biological predisposition

Refers to an innate ability for humans to act in a certain way that accommodates a particular situation.

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69

machiavellianism

Behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others.

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70

Big Five personality traits

Theory that only a handful of characteristics account for most individual differences in personality.

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71

subclinical traits

Qualities of individuals that are not extreme enough to merit a psychiatric diagnosis.

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72

central traits

Core traits that characterize an individual personality.

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73

surface traits

The visible or observable traits of one's personality.

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74

source traits

Basic underlying or foundational characteristics of personality.

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75

factor analysis

Statistical technique used to correlate multiple measurements and identify general underlying factors.

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76

agreeableness

Trait that refers to how friendly, nurturing, and caring a person is, as opposed to cold, indifferent, self-centered, or spiteful.

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77

conscientiousness

When people are irresponsible, careless, and undependable, they are usually low.

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78

neuroticism

When people tend to be anxious, emotionally "sour," irritable, and unhappy.

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79

openness

A trait that describes people who are creative and receptive to new ideas.

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80

id

A component of Freud's personality theory containing primitive drives present at birth.

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81

moral anxiety

Conflict between superego and ego.

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82

neurotic anxiety

Conflict between id and ego.

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83

libido

In Freudian theory, the force, primarily pleasure-oriented, that energizes the personality.

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84

Eros

Freud's name for the "life instincts".

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85

Thanatos

Refers to the death instinct.

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86

ego

According to Freud, the decision-making part of personality that operates on the reality.

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87

reality principle

Seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found.

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88

superego

Part of the personality that acts as a moral center.

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89

conscience

According to Freud, the part of the superego that reflects actions for which a person has been punished.

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90

ego-defense mechanisms

Mental processes that deny, distort, or otherwise block out sources of threat and anxiety.

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91

unconscious

Level of awareness that represents the contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires.

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92

preconscious

Level of awareness that represents an area of the mind containing information that can be voluntarily brought to awareness.

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93

conscious

Level of awareness that represents the region of the mind that includes all mental contents that a person is aware of at any given moment.

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94

psychosexual stages

Series of stages in which the core of personality develops before age six.

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95

self-actualization

Abraham Maslow refers to as the process of fully developing personal potentials.

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96

incongruence

A state that exists when there is a discrepancy between one's experiences and self-image.

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97

possible selves

A collection of thoughts, feelings, and images of someone you could become.

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98

conditions of worth

Internal standards used to determine the value of one's thoughts, actions, feelings, or experiences.

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99

positive self-regard

According to Rogers's theory, thinking of oneself as a good, lovable, and worthwhile person.

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100

organismic valuing

A natural, undistorted, full-body reaction to an experience.

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