Anatomy test 1

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Sagittal Plane

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105 Terms

1

Sagittal Plane

A plane that divides the body into left and right halves.

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2

Transverse Plane

A plane that cuts the body into a top and bottom portion.

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3

Frontal Plane

A plane that divides the body into front and back portions.

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4

Midsagittal

A plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves.

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5

Parasagittal

A plane that is not in the midline and requires rotation to see the image.

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6

Proximal

Closer to the insertion point

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7

Medial

Close to the center line.

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8

Distal

Farther from the insertion point

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9

Lateral

Off to the side

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10

Pronation

Turning the hand downwards.

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11

Supination

Turning the hand upwards.

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12

Superior

Closer to the head.

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13

Inferior

Closer to the feet.

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14

Ipsilateral

On the same side of the midline.

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15

Contralateral

On the opposite side of the midline.

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16

Ventral

Anterior or front side of the body.

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17

Dorsal

Posterior or back side of the body.

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18

Palmar/Volar

Front side of the hand or wrist.

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19

Deep

Closer to the center or inside the body.

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20

Plantar

Bottom of the foot.

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21

Superficial

Close to the surface.

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22

Prone

Laying flat on the stomach or face down.

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23

Supine

Laying flat on the back or face up.

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24

Anatomical

Standing upright with feet forward, arms down, palms forward, and head forward.

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25

Epithelial tissue

Tissue that covers and lines organs for protection.

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26

Connective tissue

Slower healing tissue, found between tissues

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27

Microvilli

Short, grass-like projections on cells that increase surface area.

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28

Cilia

Longer, finger/tail-like projections on cells used for movement.

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29

Exocrine

Type of gland that secretes into a hollow space or surface.

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30

Simple squamous

Allows materials to pass through and secretes lubricating substances (lining of vessels)

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31

Simple cuboidal

Secretes and absorbs (ducts)

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32

Simple columnar

Absorbs and secretes mucous (GI tract)

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33

Pseudo stratified columnar

Secretes mucous (Upper respiratory)

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34

Stratified squamous

Protects against abrasion (vagina)

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35

Stratified cuboidal

Protective tissue (glands)

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36

Stratified columnar

Secretes and protects (male urethra)

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37

Transitional

Expand and stretch (urinary organs)

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38

Adherens junction

Joins actin bundles in cells

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39

Desmosome

Joins the intermediate filaments of cells

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40

Gap junction

Allows water soluble ions to pass

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41

Hemidesmosome

Anchors intermediate filaments in a cell to basal lamina

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42

Tight junction

No space between cells

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43

Endocrine

Type of gland that secretes into the bloodstream.

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44

Loose connective tissue

Delivers nutrients to surrounding tissue, lots of ground substance, few fibers

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45

Dense regular connective tissue

All fibers in the same direction, resistant to stretch in one direction

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46

Dense irregular connective tissue

Fibers going different directions resist movement in most ways

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47

Matrix

Structural protein in connective tissue.

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48

Skeletal muscle

Muscle attached to the skeleton for movement.

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49

Nervous tissue

Tissue that transmits electrical signals and supports neurons.

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50

Glial cell

Provide support to neurons ( electrical signals - bloodflow )

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51

Bones

Dense structures that provide physical strength, stability, and protection for internal organs.

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52

Lamellae

Fill space between osteons and lacuna

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53

Compact bone

Dense bone found in the shaft of long bones.

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54

Spongy bone

Less dense bone found in the ends of long bones and in the center of other bones.

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55

Bone marrow

Soft tissue found in the center of bones that produces blood cells.

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56

Osteoblast

Cells responsible for growing new bone.

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57

Osteoclast

Cells responsible for breaking down existing bone.

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58

Osteocyte

Dormant osteoblasts that detect the need for bone remodeling.

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59

Trabeculae

Thin, branching structures in spongy bone that provide support.

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60

Growth plates

Areas where bone growth occurs.

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61

Epiphyseal line

When growth is no longer happening and bones fuse.

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62

Hematoma formation

Bleeding from vessels in osteon delivers nutrients. Lasts ~ 20 days (step 1)

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63

Fibrocartilaginous callus formation

The process of reconnecting bone pieces with soft cartilage. Takes 2-8 weeks (Step 2)

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64

Bony callus formation

The replacement of cartilage with bone. Takes 8-12 weeks (Step 3)

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65

Bone remodeling

The process of replacing spongy bone with compact bone. Takes 6-12 months (Step 4)

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66

Osteoporosis

A decrease in bone density that occurs with age, accelerated by an imbalance in osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

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67

Wolff's Law

Bones that are not used or under stress eventually lose bone density.

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68

Leukemia

Affects the production of white blood cells, causing an increase in poorly formed cells.

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69

Periosteum

Connective tissue that provides a connection site for muscles to bones. Made of dense irregular tissue

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70

Endosteum

Separates bone from bone marrow

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71

Shin splints

Separation in perforating fibers that pull the periosteum from the bone.

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72

Hyaline cartilage

Covers all joints to prevent bone-bone interaction. Good at compressive loading and strongest/ most bone-like

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73

Osteoarthritis

Loss of cartilage at joints, causing bone-to-bone interaction.

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74

Fibrocartilage

Cartilage with added collagen fibers to resist stretch and tolerate sheer force. Provide stability in joints

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75

Elastic cartilage

Cartilage that stretches and returns to its normal shape.

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76

Tendons

Made of collagen fibers, connect muscles to bones.

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77

Ligaments

Made of collagen fibers, connect bones to other bones.

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78

Tendonitis

Inflammation of the tendon caused by microtears to the collagen fibers.

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79

Sacromere

The functional unit of a muscle fiber, made up of actin and myosin filaments.

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80

Fascia

Connective tissue that separates muscle groups and protects muscles.

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81

Compartment syndrome

Tissue damage caused by increased pressure within a compartment, leading to tissue death.

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82

Hypertrophy

Increase in muscle size due to gaining contractile proteins and myofibrils.

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83

Hyperplasia

Increase in muscle cells, typically only seen in children.

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84

Steroids

Substances that can make it easier for muscles to add proteins and strengthen.

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85

Rhabdomyolysis

Condition where damaged muscle protein enters the bloodstream, potentially causing kidney damage.

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86

Smooth muscles

Found in every organ in the body, responsible for slow sustained contractions.

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87

Asthma

Spasm of the walls in the airway, involving smooth muscle.

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88

Cardiac muscles

Found in the heart, similar to skeletal muscles but lack nerves.

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89

GAP junctions

Ensure chemical communication between cells in cardiac muscles.

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90

Intercalated disks

Structures that link cardiac muscle cells together and define borders.

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91

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Thinning walls, stretching ventricles can't pump all blood out

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92

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Thickening walls, cannot fill with blood, reduces blood delivered to tissue

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93

Frank Starling law of the heart

Increased blood volume = increased stretch of myocardium → increased force to pump of blood

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94

Type 1 muscle fiber

Slow twitch oxidative uses oxygen, long time before fatigue

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95

Type 2a muscle fiber

Fast twitch oxidative also uses oxygen but less efficient because faster contraction

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96

Type 2b muscle fiber

Fast twitch glycolytic, use glycogen not oxygen, fastest contraction but fatigue quickly

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97

Myoglobin

Delivers oxygen to muscles

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98

Fascicle

Make up muscles and tendons

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99

Myofibril

Makes up fascicles, where sarcomeres are

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100

Tropomyosin

Wrap around actin to block binding

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