COMM 257 - Bajan - Final - Rels

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What is the world made up of according to Baudrillard?

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1

What is the world made up of according to Baudrillard?

Empty and meaningless signs

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2

Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction Author

Walter Benjamin

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3

What is the Frankfurt School known for?

Developing critical theory

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4

What is Critical Theory?

A social theory meant to confront social structures that confine us as individuals

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5

What theological idea was a key element in the formation of critical theory?

Marxism

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6

What are Marxist ideas of social structure?

Ruling class controls the mean of production

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7

What did the development of superstructure taking longer than development of base lead to?

Concentration of Ownership

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8

Why is the power of the ruling class felt through all aspects of society and feel distinct change in manners of production?

Concentration of Ownership

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9

Who owns the majority of stuff?

A few people and companies

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10

What is the economy built of according to Walter Benjamin?

Rapid creation and distribution of goods

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11

What shows that we internalized the power of the superstructure according to Walter Benjamin?

Alienation of labor (we don't know who makes our products)

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12

What does reproducing art do to the original according to Walter Benjamin?

Devalues the original art

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13

What are the social impacts of reproduction according to Walter Benjamin?

Destroys the aura Takes art out of hands of wealthy elite and give it to the masses

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14

What changes when criteria of authenticity stops artistic expression from being about ritual Who said this?

The way we evaluate art Walter Benjamin

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15

What of the object is tied to ritual or cult functions?

Aura

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16

How does Marx define objects?

Only for what it's used for

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17

What was the original form of reproductions?

Lithography

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18

What does reproducing do to the value of art?

Lowers it

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19

What era shows the ritual base for art being replaced?

Renaissance

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20

What is the ritual base for art replaced with?

Shallow meaningless form (people are not involved in participating in form)

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21

Where does the ritual base for art become replaced with shallow meaningless form?

The West

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22

What is the value of art after reproduction?

Exchange value

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23

What changes when criteria of authenticity stops artistic expression from being about ritual

The way we evaluate art

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24

What does Berger believe the reproduction of art gives to the art?

False religiosity

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25

When did the value of art become the exchange value?

During the invention of photography

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26

What was the last gasp of modern art?

Photography

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27

What does the viewer of a motion picture identify with?

The camera

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28

Plays are more ________ than a motion picture because they are live and organic

personal

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29

Film doesn't have the same ____ as a stage play

aura

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30

Any aura is lost with ____________

reproduction

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31

What does stage plays do that motion picture does not?

Maintain a natural distance to reality

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32

What comparison can be used when comparing films to plays?

Magician vs Surgeon

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33

Films ______________ the reaction in the audience

predetermine

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34

What are the 2 reasons films are distraction for the masses with no aura?

  1. They are a key attribute of reproduction

  2. People look at film differently than art

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35

Why do people look at art differently than film?

It is easier to watch a movie than see art (see Mona Lisa once but watch a movie hundreds of times)

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36

Why does Walter Benjamin think that film is easier to analysis than art

Film behavior lends itself to talk

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37

According to Benjamin, is is easier to analysis film or other types of artistic expression

Film

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38

Why is it easier to analyze film than other types of artistic expression?

Every part of film can be analyzed

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39

How does film give a different viewing experience than paintings?

Film gives no time to process what you're seeing

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40

What must happen for an art form to become esthetic enough to satisfy the public?

Technology must catch up to it

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41

According to Walter, what has happened due to the change in mode of art?

Quantity == Quality

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42

Who came up with anesthetization of politics?

Walter Benjamin

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43

Aestheticization of politics is a key component in what political group?

Fascist regimes

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44

How are ads similar to fascist regimes

Allows individuals to feels as though they're not enough to they buy what the ad is selling

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45

According to Walter, who relies heavily on aesthetic ritual?

Fascist regimes

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46

What do rituals give but change?

Chance to channel emotion; nothing

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47

What causes the lost of aura and general apathy of masses to popular entrainment according to Walter?

Aestheticization of politics

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48

Who said that the strong use of art to stage public spectacles that has artificial aura gives individual the feeling that they have agency in playing an important role when in reality you have no agency and no control and machine is going to try and control you?

Walter Benjamin

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49

What does mass entertainment distract us from?

The truth

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50

Who wrote Medium is the message?

Marshall McLuhan

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51

Who is the father of medium theory?

Marshall McLuhan

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52

What does Medium theory examine?

The interrelationship and effects on human development

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53

What mediated the experiences with pop culture people had with pop culture?

New forms of technology

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54

What caused a growth in mass communication and mass communication culture?

WWII

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55

What are the main Eras needed to understand McLuhan?

Tribal Era Literacy Era Print Era Electronic Era

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56

What era did not have a fixed sense of time, reality, or truth due to being primarily oral?

Tribal Era

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57

What era first used logical and linear thinking?

Literacy Era

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58

Who said linear categories stems from the literacy era and invention of writing?

Marshall McLuhan

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59

What did the Print Era see the growth of?

Machines and large city centers

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60

What era saw mechanization/mass industrialization?

Print Era

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61

What era saw the world become smaller again because there's instantaneous communication?

Electronic Era

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62

Who coined the term global village?

Marshall McLuhan

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63

Media is a fundamental part of the human ecosystem - Walter

Media Ecology

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64

Who believed that if we studied how human media and interactions occur, we will gain deeper understanding of ourselves (Media ecology)

Marshall McLuhan

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65

How does McLuhan understand history?

Through the dominate communication mode of that time

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66

What was the first book with an academic study over advertisement and pop culture seriously?

Mechanical Bride - Marshall McLuhan

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67

Where is the phrase 'We shape our tools and then our tools shape us' from?

Gutenberg Galaxy - Marshall McLuhan

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68

Term used to describe electronic visual media shrinks the world and makes communication instant

Global Village

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69

Who looked at Mass media and communication and its affect on people?

Marshall McLuhan

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70

What do we need to pay attention to instead of content to understand media and how it affects us according to McLuhan?

Media

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71

Why do we psychologically auto amputate bodily senses according to McLuhan?

Mass media has numb our consciousness

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72

What did McLuhan tell the public?

They're passive, easily manipulated dupes and needed to wake up from deep sleep

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73

Who predicted the rise of the internet?

Marshall McLuhan

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74

What is media ecology?

Study of human media interaction in the natural environment

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75

As we change media, ...

The media changes us

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76

Define figure and ground

Figure: Media/technology Ground: Natural Environment

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77

Change in one part of the ecosystem is met by...

a reactive change in another part of the ecosystem

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78

What has happened as a result of technology giving us more time to produce more?

We consume more

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79

What was created due to the retribalization of the world?

Global Village

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80

What happened to cause the formation of the Global Village?

The world has been interconnected and interdependent

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81

Who said 'The new electronic interdependence re-creates the world in the image of a global village'

Marshall McLuhan

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82

According to McLuhan, what was the biggest danger to restructuring society due to how it affect the family dynamic?

Television

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83

Is form or content more important to McLuhan?

Form

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84

What is the different between hot and cool media?

Hot media: affects one sense at a high temperature Cool media: affects multiple senses simultaneously to a lesser degree

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85

Examples of Hot media

Radio, photography, print, propaganda, realistic paintings

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86

Examples of Cool media

Telephone, comics, speech, television, abstract oil painting

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87

Does hot or cool media take mental effort to understand?

Cool media

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88

Who came up with hot and cool media?

Marshall McLuhan

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89

How does media manipulate the sense ratio?

Extends the senses

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90

What happens when we extended our senses to the point they become numb?

We amputate it (stop using the sense due to over stimulation)

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91

What are the four laws of Media?

Enhances, Reverses Into, Retrieves, Obsolescences

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92

Describe Enhances in the Four Laws of Media

Extends, Amplifies, or Enhances some human capacity

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93

Describe Reverses Into in the Four Laws of Media

When something is pushed to extreme, it reverses into opposite invention

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94

Describe Retrieves in the Four Laws of Media

Retrieves experience or medium from the past

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95

Describe Obsolescences in the Four Laws of Media

Makes an older medium obsolete

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96

How has electronic and digital media affect art?

Created global village/allows us to view art anywhere in the world at a touch of the button

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97

How has modern media caused the democratizing art and communication and the retribalization of it?

Art has been taken out of rigid print Creative Process given back to artists Easier to view art

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98

What does digital art blur the lines of?

Authenticity and reproduction

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99

What has allowed 'art is anything you can get away with' - McLuhan to occure?

Communication Media

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100

What class of thinking did Baudrillard help to create?

Postmodernism

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