Chapter 3: Storage

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147 Terms

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storage media

hardware where data is stored

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DVD disc, flash memory card

2 examples of storage media

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storage device

medium is inserted into device to be used

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DVD drive, flash memory card reader

2 examples of storage device

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letter

Storage devices are typically identified by _____.

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nonvolatile

Storage media are _____.

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random access

allows data to be retrieved from any location on the storage medium

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direct access

Random access is also called as _____.

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random access

Virtually all storage devices use _____.

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sequential access

retrieval of data can occur only in the order in which it was physically stored on the storage medium

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magnetic tape drive

example of sequential access

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File

Anything stored on a storage medium, such as a program, document, digital image, or song

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File name

Name given to a file by the user

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Folder

Named place on a storage medium into which files can be stored

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Logical file representation

Individuals view a document stored as one complete unit in a particular folder on a particular drive

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Physical file representation

Computers access a particular document stored on a storage medium using its physical location or location

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magnetic, optical, electrons

3 types of storage technology used

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magnetic

conventional hard drives

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optical

optical discs

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electrons

flash memory media

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Hard Drive

Used to store most programs and data

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Hard Drive

Can be internal or external

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Hard Drive

Can be encrypted

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Magnetic Hard Drives

One or more permanently sealed metal magnetic disks with an access mechanism and read/write heads

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tracks, sectors, clusters, cylinders

4 divisions of hard disks

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Tracks

Concentric path on disk where data is recorded

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Sectors

A small piece of the track

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Clusters

One or more sectors; smallest addressable area of a disk

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Cylinders

Collection of tracks located in the same location on a set of hard disk surfaces

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64GB

Media tablets often have _____ of storage

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Solid State Drives (SSDs)

Use flash memory technology

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Solid State Drives (SSDs)

Use less power and have no moving parts

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Solid State Drives (SSDs)

Particularly appropriate for portable computers and mobile devices

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Data Recovery Experts

Can recover data from damaged storage devices

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Data Recovery Experts

Can be used when devices are physically damaged or just stop working

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Data Recovery Experts

Back up to prevent data loss

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Internal hard drives

Permanent storage devices located inside the system unit

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Internal hard drives

Removed only if a problem develops

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External hard drives

Commonly used to transport large amounts of data from one computer to another

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External hard drives

Portable _____ are smaller and easier to transport

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External hard drives

Most connect with a USB connection although some may be wireless

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full-sized external hard drives

  • are about the size of a 5 by 7-inch picture frame, but thicker

  • this drive contains two magnetic hard drives, which hold 6 TB total

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portable hard drives (magnetic)

  • are about the size of a 3 by 5 inch index card, but thicker

  • this drive holds 2 TB

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portable hard drives (ssd)

  • are about the size of a credit card, but thicker

  • this drive holds 256 GB

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Disk access time

Total time that it takes for a hard drive to read or write data

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seek time, rotational delay, data movement time

3 components of disk access time

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SSDs

_____ don’t require seek time or rotational delays

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Disk cache

  • Memory used in conjunction with a magnetic hard drive to improve system performance

  • Typically consist of memory chips on a circuit board inside the hard drive case

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memory chips on a circuit board

Disk cache typically consist of _____ inside the hard drive case

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Hybrid Hard Drive

Combination of flash memory and magnetic hard drive

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Hybrid Hard Drive

Allows encryption to be built into the drive

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flash memory

Hybrid Hard Drive uses _____ for cache

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Magnetic Hard Drive

This 2TB drive contains 2 hard disks and 4 read/write heads that operate in a manner similar to a conventional hard drive.

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Flash Memory Disk Cache

This drive contains 8 GB of flash memory to duplicate data as it is stored on the hard disks so the data can be accessed when the hard disks are not spinning.

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Partitioning

Divides the physical capacity of a single drive logically into separate areas, called partitions.

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efficiency (smaller drives use smaller clusters)

Partitioning increases _____

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independent hard drives

Partitions function as _____.

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logical drives

Partitioning is referred to as _____.

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recovery partition, new logical drive for data, dual boot system

Partitions used to create (3):

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File system

Determines the partition size, cluster size, maximum drive size, and maximum file size

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FAT, FAT32, NTFS

3 examples of file systems

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hard drive interface standards

Determine how a drive connects to the computer

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Parallel ATA (PATA), Serial ATA (SATA), eSATA, SCSI and the newer serial attached SCSI (SAS), Fibre Channel, Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE), Internet SCSI (iSCSI)

8 common hard drive interface standards

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Optical Disc

A type of storage read from and written to using laser beams

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Optical Disc

Today’s standard for software delivery

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single spiral track (groove)

Optical disc is divided into sectors like magnetic discs but use a _____.

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Optical Disc

Have a relatively large capacity and are durable

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backup purposes and for storing and transporting music, photos, video, etc.

Optical Disc are used for _____.

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Read-only optical disc

Surface of disc is molded or stamped

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Recordable or rewritable disc

Optical drive is used and the reflectivity of the disc is changed using a laser to represent the data

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Pits and lands

_____ are used to represent 1s and 0s.

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transition between a pit and a land

represents a 1

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no transition between a pit and a land

represents a 0

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writing data

when data is written to a the disk, a laser beam creates pits, represented by dark, nonreflective area on the disc.

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pits

when data is written to a the disk, a laser beam creates _____, represented by dark, nonreflective area on the disc.

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reading data

  • A low intensity laser beam reads the disc

  • A transition between a pit and a land is interpreted as a 1; a set period of time between transition is interpreted as a 0.

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CD, DVD, Blu-Ray Disc (BD)

3 categories of disks

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Optical Drives

Can be read-only, recordable, or rewritable

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downward compatible

Optical Drives are almost always

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single, dual layer discs

Optical Drives can support _____ or _____.

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burning

Recording data onto disc

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120-mm (about 4.7 inches)

Standard size of optical discs

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80-mm

size of mini discs

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hearts, triangles, irregular shapes, a hockey-rink shape

Optical discs theoretically can be made into 4 various shapes but none of these different shapes are currently available

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Patent battle

exists about changing optical disc shapes

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large capacity

major advantage of optical discs and drives

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single layer, 650 or 700 MB

CD discs are normally _____ and hold_____.

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4.7 GB (single-layer), 8.5 GB (dual-layer)

DVD discs hold _____ or _____.

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25 GB (single-layer), 50 GB (dual-layer)

BD discs hold _____ or _____.

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double-sided

Discs can also be _____.

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CD ROM, DVD ROM, BD-ROM

Can be read from, but not written to, by the user

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pre-recorded

CD ROM, DVD ROM, BD-ROM normally come _____.

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compact disc read-only memory

CD ROM

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digital versatile disc read-only memory

DVD ROM

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Blu-Ray Disc read-only memory

BD-ROM

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CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R Discs

  • Can be written to, but cannot be erased and reused

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physically molded pits

CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R Discs have no _____.

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backing up files, sending large files to others, creating custom music CDs

CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R Discs are used for _____, _____, and _____.

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recording layer

CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R most have a _____ containing organic light-sensitive dye between disc’s plastic and reflective layers

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inorganic material

BD-R disc has _____.

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