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green algae is

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Biology

146 Terms

1

green algae is

the protist that gave rise to land plants

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2

how long ago to algae split to land plants

405 mya

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3

what are some major issues with life on land

exposure to sun, different nutrients, lack of water different temperatures

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4

advantages of life on land

increased survival chances, less competition, new potential food options

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5

4 main land plant features

multicellular haploid and diploid life

offspring contain all genetic info=diploid

embryo protection

small haploid portion of life cycle

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6

how did plants jump from water to lan

adaptation

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7

exapmples of adaptations

cuticle, stomata, tracheid, diploid genome, haploid

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8

cuticle

waxy thing that keeps water in

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9

stomato

allows for gas echange

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10

tracheids

tubes that move nutrients throughout a plant

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11

bryophytes nonvascular

closest and oldest living descendants of first land plants, dominant gametophyte (n) no roots have rhizoid

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12

under bryo liverworts nonvascular

flattened haploid (n) gametophyte, moist env, sexual reproduction(gametangia) water moves sperm to egg

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13

archegonia does?

egg producer

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14

antheridia does?

sperm producer

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15

asexual reproduction of liverworts

gemmae cups

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16

under bry moss nonvascular

gametophyte (n) leaflike structures around stemlike axis, rhizoids to anchor and pull in nutrients

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17

sporophyte of moss

knowt flashcard image
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18

gametophyte of moss

knowt flashcard image
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19

under bryo nonvascular hornworts

origin is unclear, sporophyte is photosynthetic, stomata for gas exchange

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20

non vascular plant life time

most spent in gametophyte as (n)

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21

parts of moss

knowt flashcard image
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22

vacsuclar seed less plant

tracheophyte

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23

under tracheophyte vasc seedless cooksonia

oldest and first vascular plant, appeared 410 myo, only a few cm tall

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24

key features of tracheophytes

homorsporous

vascular tissue

cuticle

stomata

leaves

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25

homosporous

produce 1 type of spore increase survival of offspring

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26

vascular tissue

increase nutrient absorption and size of plant

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27

another positice of cuticle

helps decrease water loss

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28

stomata

regulate gas exchange, water can leave but not enter

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29

positive of leaves

allows for more photosynthesis

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30

evolution of vascular system

  1. stems size increase

  2. roots established anchor, nutrient absorption

  3. leaves increase photo

  4. seeds protect embryo increase survival

    1. flowers increase pollination

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31

seedless vasc spend most time

as sporophyte and diploid

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32

seedless vac plants include

tracheophytes, lycophytes(club mosses), pterophytes(whiskferns ferns horsetails),

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33

lycophytes (club mosses)

worldwide distribution, abundant in tropics, dominant sporophyte, strolois=houses spores(repro structure)

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34

pterophytes

still sorting out relatedness, all form antheridia and archegonia, all require free water for flagellated sperm

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35

under ptero whisk ferns

found in tropics, forking green stems, symbiosis with fungi, gametophyte is underground

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36

under ptero horsetails

sporophyte, photosynthetic stems, cells walls with silica known as scouring rush, strobilus contains spores

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37

conditions for spore release

dry hot, unfavorable

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38

why do plants release in poor conditions

so their offspring have the best chance of survival

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39

advantage of having silica

structural integrity, protection against predators, enables taller plant

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40

under ptero ferns

largest group, most diverse group of seedless vascular plants, large sporophyte, low light levels, cool, damp

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41

rhizoid

stem of fern

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42

rhizome

rootlike structure of fern

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43

where are the spores of a fern

under the blade inside of the sporangium

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44

why are the spores of ferns under the blade

protection, gravity helps release spores

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45

more things about ferns

developmental independence & dominance of sporophyte, gametophyte lacks vacsular tissue, water moves sperm to egg

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46

fiddlehead

tight coiled tips of ferns

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47

caboniferous period

360-295 mya horsetails, whiskferns, ferns===fossil fuels

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48

ex of vacs seed plant

maple

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49

maple syrup come from

phylum anthophyta

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50

maple syrup process

leaves run photosynthesis, in the winter sugar travels down through phloem, in the warmer months the sugar travels back up via the xylem where it is tapped

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51

gal syruphow many gallons of sap have to be boiled to create one

60-70

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52

faster method for syrup instead of boiling

filtering water out

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53

acorn germination

oak mature 5-10 years after they

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54

pollination

move pollen(sperm) to egg

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55

fertilization

sperm fuses with egg=zygote

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56

oak trees best friends

squirels, deer, turkeys, woodpeckers

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57

what stragey do oak trees use when dispersing thousands of babies

something with R

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58

vasc seed herbaceous

short life cycle, short lived

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59

under herb annuals

die every year, regrow from seed/root base

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60

under herb perinials

year after year, long lived

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61

under herb evergreen

leaves year rounds

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62

under herb decidous

looses leaves in major drop

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63

seed vac woody

long lived, long life cycle

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64

shoot system

stem part, repoduction, support, produce nutrients

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65

root system

get water, nutrients, anchor

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66

which group partners with root systems

mychorizzae

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67

ground tissue

muscle/flesh stores nutrients bulk of plant body

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68

vascular tissue

moves fluid and nutrients

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69

dermal tissue

skin protection, decreases water loss

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70

ground=parenchyma

most common tissue type, stores nutrients, photosynthesis, secretions

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71

ground=collenshyma

durable, tough, string, felxibility and structural support

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72

ground=schlerenchyma

hard, gritty, support, small level of protection, wood fibers, paper

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73

what does grit do for a pear

protect developing cells

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74

vascular tissues

xylem and phloem

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75

xylem contains

dissolved minerals, water roots to shoots

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76

ploem contains

sugar, shoots to roots

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77

tracheid

back flow preventers (pits)

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78

dermal tissues from top down

upper epidermis, palisade, xylem, phloem, lower epidermis

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79

upper epidermis

cuticle, dead cells

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80

palisade

mesophyll cell-photosynthetic

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81

lower epidermis

opening for stoma

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82

guard cells

regulate movement in and out located on side of stoma

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83

stoma in heat

close, but doesn’t allow for gas exchange

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84

trichomes

on dermal layer, hairs, protection against predation, trap evaporated water back into roots

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85

woody plants

periderm epidermis that ages into hard swollen layer of dead cells decreases water loss`

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86

primary growth patterns

apical and lateral

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87

apical

meristem tissue, growth from tip

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88

lateral

width/girth

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89

199-167 mya

angiosperms

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90

what led to evolution of vasc seedless

hot dry environment

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91

seedless vasc dominated during

mesozoic era relied on wind for pollination of seed

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92

angio pollination

use animals that eat fruit

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93

endosperm

nutrients for developing embryo

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94

kay features for seed plants

vascular

sporophyte dominant

heterosporous

some are dioescous 1 gender

some are monodioesco

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95

gymnosperm facts

~319 mya bear naked seeds

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96

unger gymno phylum coniferophyta

cone trees

304 mya

evergreens producing

needle

monocious

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97

pollen cones

micrsporangium

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98

seed cones

megasporangium

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99

how long does it take a conifer tree to grow and produce cones

3 years

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100

pollinations for the tree

7-10 days

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