Zoology Final Exam

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Characteristics of life

1 / 153

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Biology

11th

154 Terms

1

Characteristics of life

Cellular organizaiton

Heredity (reproduction

Growth, repair, and development

Metabolism

Homeostasis

Responding to environment

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2

All animals have these traits

Multicellular, eukaryotic cells

Motility

Tissue structure

Nervous System/tissue

Sexual Reproduction

Formation of blastula during embryonic development

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3

Classification levels

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Order

Family

Genus

Species

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4

The 3 domains

Archaea

Bacteria

Eukaryota

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5

The 7 Kingdoms

Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, protozoa, chromista, fungi, plantae, animalia

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Prezygotic

Before fertilized egg; geographic isolation, temporal isolation

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Postzygotic

After fertilized egg; sterile, low fitness

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Species

A kind of organism that can breed with others of its kind and produce fertile offspring; they are reproductively isolated from other species that are similar

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9

Geographic isolation

A population of species gets separated from another population of species and can no longer breed with one another

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10

Behavioral isolation

Differences in courtship behaviors and other cues keep individuals of close relation from mating

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11

Temporal isolation

When two populations reproduce at different times, so there is little chance they will breed with each other

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12

Evidence of evolution

Fossils, Homologous structures, vestigial structures, Embryos, biochemicals

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13

Fossils

Remains or traces of organisms from the past; Relative dating- no true fossil age but have an idea of it from rock layers; Absolute dating- radioactive dating based on amount of remaining radioactive isotopes

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14

Homologous structures

Structures that are similar even if their function is not

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15

Vestigial structures

Structures that seem to have no purpose today, but must have had one in an earlier ancestor long ago

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16

Embryos

First resemble tadpoles and then develop following the general pattern of evolution; this could indicate all organisms had a common ancestor

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17

Biochemicals

The amino acid order indicated by the hemoglobin is almost the same in closely related organisms

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18

Genetic drift

Chance event that randomly removes or includes some individuals from the population. Those that remain reproduce on only those genes; quick and catastrophic event

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Kinds of genetic drift

Bottleneck effect, founder effect, migration, natural selection, artificial selection

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20

Bottleneck effect

reduction in population size

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Founder effect

Subset of population finds new population

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22

Migration

The regular movement of animals from one area to another

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23

Requirements for successful migration

Physical endurance, mechanics for storing energy, food sources along route

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Reasons for migration

Steady food supply, allows for reproduction

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25

Results of migration

Helps equalize gene pool since it often combines multiple subgroups; increases gene diversity

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26

Natural selection

Organisms which are best suited to he environment survive and reproduce to pass their gene composition to the next generation

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Artificial selection

Humans choose which animals live or get to reproduce thus altering the outcome of offspring

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Sexual selection

Mates of one sex compete with others for the attention of the opposite sex for the purpose of mating; traits used to increase the chance of mating may even make them more vulnerable to predation but the benefit outweighs the cost

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29

Directional selection

The genotype/phenotype frequency changes overtime towards one extreme

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30

Stabilizing selection

the environment selects against the extremes of a trait resulting in a fairly constant appearance of the trait over time

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Disruptive selection

Organisms survive at either extreme but don’t have as much success with an inbetween trait

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32

Coevolution

the evolution of two species in response to changes in same environment; may evolve to help benefit two species or make competition

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33

Divergent evolution

Species sharing a common ancestor and becoming more and more different due to living in different environments

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34

Convergent evolution

Distantly related organisms evolve to have similar features to adapt to similar environments

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35

Extinction

The dying out of a species so that no more exist on earth; can occur when the environment changes faster than the genetic diversity and fitness of individuals can keep up with

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36

Species can rapidly die because

Addition of new species

Pollution and climate change

Limited resources

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37

Least Concern

Population members high

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Near threatend

Declining population numbers

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39

Vulnerable

Will be endangered if conditions do not change

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40

Endangered

Species number is low; at serious risk

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Critically endangered

Extremely high risk; less than 250 individuals

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42

Mass extinction

Rapid events that wipe out the majority of life on Earth; if environmental change is great enough, fast enough, and on a global scale, the whole planet is in trouble; has happened about 5 times

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43

Cladistics

Classification based on the order in which species descended over time with the assumption of a common ancestor

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44

Cladogram

An evolutionary tree indicating how organisms are related to one another

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45

Derived characteristics

traits that can be used to figure out evolutionary relationships among groups of species

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46

Nodes

Each place where a branch splits in a cladogram

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47

Clades

A group of organisms that share similar traits derived from a common ancestor

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48

Molecular clocks

Using the mutation rate in DNA to determine evolutionary relatedness; closely related organisms tend to have DNA mutations at a similar rate

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49

Mitochondria DNA (mtDNA)

Mutations at a rate of 10x that of nuclear DNA; passed from mom to child; easier to use when tracing back genes; helpful to determine relatedness in close species

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50

Ribosomal RNA

Mutates at a very slow rate; useful for determining distant species

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51

DNA Hybridization

Using melting point of hybridized DNA to Determine the number of hydrogen bonds between strands, this shows similarities between the two

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52

Adaptation

Any trait that enhances the survival and reproduction of an organism

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53

Isolating mechanisms

Factors that affect the gene pool of a population; can lead to the formation of a new species

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54

Gene flow

Occurs when organisms from one community migrate into another; introduces new alleles to the population; can result in a change in the genetic makeup of a population

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Fitness

The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment

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56

DNA sequencing

Most reliable evidence supporting the theory of evolution

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Diploid

Having a double set of chromosomes; allows for increased genetic variation among members in a population

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Crossing over

Genetic diversity is partial due to this process during meiosis

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59

Background extinction

the general number of extinctions that occur at any period in Earth’s history

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60

What kind of evolution often follow a period of numerous extinctions?

Rapid Speciation or macroevolution

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61

Dichadmais key

Can be used to identify an organism using choices between alternative characteristics

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62

Types of organization

Symmetry, embryological development, body cavity development, tissue organization

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Symmetry principal

More complex=less symmetrical

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Asymmetric

arrangement of body parts without a central axis or point

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65

Radial symmetry

arrangement of body parts such that a single plane passing through the oral-aboral axis divides that animal into mirror images

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66

Bilateral symmetry

Arrangement of body parts such that a single plane passing through the longitudinal axis divides the animal into right and left mirror images

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67

Cephalization

Form distinct head to analyze the environment as they move through it

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Anterior

head end; end that meets environment first

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Posterior

Tail end (back)

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70

Dorsal

Back of animal; upper surface

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71

Ventral

Belly of animal; lower surface

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72

Meiosis

Process of creating egg or sperm

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73

Oogenesis

Production of egg cell; oogenium-PMATC(2)- ovum+3 polar bodies

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Spermatogenesis

Production of sperm cells; spermatogenium-PMATC(2)- 4 spermatozoa

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Fertilization

When spermatozoa meets ovum resulting in zygote - diploid single cell; zygote undergoes series of mitotic division known as cleavage

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76

A ___ is formed as more cells are created; when ball begins to create a hollow center

Blastula

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77

Blastula reorganizes into a multicellular structure called a ___ by folding in on itself

Gastrula

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78

Protostome

Animals when the blastopore will eventually become the mouth of organism; blastomeres are determinate; mesoderm begins near blastopore (between exo and endo); schitozocoelous development

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79

Deuterostome

Animals in which blastopore will eventually become anus of organism; blastomeres are indeterminate; Mesoderm begins away from blastopore (attached to endo); enterocoelous development

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80

Acoelomate

Do not have body cavity; solid mesodermal layer; platyhelminthes

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Pseudocoelomate

Body cavity is not derived from the mesoderm, but is reminiscent of blastocoel; nemotoda and rotifera

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Coelomates

Have true coelom surrounded by mesodermal tissue

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Diploblastic

Arising from only 2 embryonic layers: endoderm and ectoderm

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84

Triploblastic

Having 3 layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

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85

Ectoderm will become….

Skin and nervous system

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86

Endoderm will become…

Digestive tract and respiratory

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87

Mesoderm will become…

Muscles, skeletal, circulatory, excretory, lymphatic, reproductive

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88

Levels of organization

Cell

Tissue

Organ

Organ system

Organism

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89

Morula

A solid ball of cells

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90

Polar bodies

When new cell undergoes mitosis but the daughter cells don’t grow before the next round of mitosis

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91

5 basic common types of tissue

Epitherial, connective, fluid, muscle, nervous

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92

Connective tissues

Arises from mesoderm; wraps around and cushions to protect organs; store nutrients (adipose), Internal support of organs (areolar), Tendons and ligaments bend to protect joints and attatch muscles to bones (dense)

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Cartilege

Provides strength and flexibility while resisting wear; cushions shock where bones meet

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Bones

Provides framework and strength for body; allows movement; stores calcium; contains blood forming cells

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95

Fluid tissue

Transport food, nutrients, and waste products around body; immune response

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Muscular tissues

Arises from mesoderm; 3 types: Striated, smooth, cardiac

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Striated/voluntary muscles

Found in arms and legs

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98

Smooth/involuntary muscles

Work automatically; found in intestines

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99

Cardiac muscles

Involuntary

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100

Muscle tissue is made so it can…

expand and contract

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