Psyc 1101 Final

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Emotions

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Psychology

255 Terms

1

Emotions

consist of patterns of physiological responses and species-typical behaviors/responses of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and, most importantly, conscious experience resulting from one's interpretations

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3 components of emotion

behavioral, autonomic, hormonal

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Behavioral

muscular movements that are appropriate to the situation that elicits them

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Autonomic

facilitate the behaviors and provide quick mobilization of energy for vigorous movement

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Hormonal

Hormonal responses reinforce the autonomic responses

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How to measure emotion

self report, behavioral observayion, physiological measures

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facial expression

Most important and observed nonverbal communication/ facial expressions can be suppressed but micro expressions are revealing

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emotional component

bodily, arousal, expressive behaviors, conscious experiences

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autonomic nervous system (ANS)

sympathetic/parasympathetic

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sympathetic

arousing, increases bodily functions

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Parasympathetic

calming, rest and digest

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How does arousal affect performance?

Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks

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James-Lange

emotion occurs when we become aware of our body's response to emotion-inducing stimuli (we observe our heart pounding and feel fear)

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Cannon-Bard Theory

physiological response to an emotion-inducing stimulus occurs at the same time as our subjective feeling of the emotion (one does not cause the other)

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Schachter-Singer Theory

Our experience of emotion depends on two factors: general arousal and a conscious cognitive label.

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Zajonc; LeDoux Theory

Some embodied responses happen instantly, without conscious appraisal.

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Lazarus Theory

Cognitive appraisal ("Is it dangerous or not?")—sometimes without ourawareness—defines emotion

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basic emotions

Happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, shame, anger, contempt, surprise

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social psychology

study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another

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components of social psychology

social thinking, social influence, social relations

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correlation between attitudes and behaviors

Attitudes play little or no role in guiding behavior (Wicker, 1969). Attitudes are just verbal habits that only influence what people say.

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Power of Individuals

The power of social influence is enormous, but so is the power of the individual.

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Attrubution theory

we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someoneʼs behavior•by crediting either the situation or the personʼs disposition

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dispositional/personal attributions

Internal or dispositional attributions are based on an individual's perceived stable characteristics - attitudes, personality traits, or abilities

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situational attribution

explanations based on the current situation and events

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Fundamental Attribution Error

Tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of situations in analyzing others' behavior

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The actor-observer effect

We make situational attributions for our own behaviors and dispositional ones for the behavior of others

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self-serving biases

attributions that we adopt to maximize credit for success and minimize blame for failure

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Self-handicapping strategies

intentionally put themselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for failure

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attitude

belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events

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When do attitudes predict behavior?

When outside influences are minimal, attitude is specific to the behavior, we are made aware of our attitude

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Foot-in-theDoor phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

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cognitive dissonance

-an individual holds contradictory attitudes on an issue

- has exhibited behavior that is inconsistent with an expressed attitude

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How does behavior affect attitude in wartime?

When evil behavior occurs we tend to justify it as right

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How does behavior affect attitude in peacetime?

Moral action affects moral thinking

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Stanford Prison Experiment

Philip Zimbardo's study of the effect of roles on behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to play either prisoners or guards in a mock prison. The study was ended early because of the "guards'" role-induced cruelty.

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Conformity

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

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normative social influence

Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

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informational social influence

Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality

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suggestibility

adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard

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Asch Study

subjects conformed to group opinion about 1/3 of the time

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Conditions that strengthen conformity

1. One is made to feel incompetent or insecure

2. The group has at least 3 people

3. The group is unanimous

4. One admires the group's status and attractiveness

5. One has no prior commitment to a response

6. The group observes one's behavior

7. One's culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard

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43

Obedience

-People comply to social pressures

-How would they respond to outright command

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Milgram Experiment

obedience; electrical shocks to incorrect answers; learners were paid actors;80% continued giving shocks after the learner screamed

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Why did people continue Milgram Experiment?

•Afraid experimenter would be disappointed/hurt

•Situation was ambiguous & experimenter seemed like a legitumate source to listen to

•Self-justification

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Milgram's Conclusion

The most fundamental lesson of our study is that ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process.

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47

What Is a Group?

•2 or more people

•interact with and influence one another

•perceive one another as "us"

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48

social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others/worse performances on un-mastered tasks or complex tasks

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social loafing

The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually

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50

Deindividuation

•the process of losing one's sense of personal identity, which makes it easier to behave in ways inconsistent with one's normal values

•loss of self-awareness

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When is deindividuation most likely to occur?

1. Physical anonymity

2. Group size

3. Arousing and distracting activities

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group polarization

•Group discussions with like-minded others strengthen members' prevailing beliefs and attitudes

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Groupthink

•People are driven by a desire for harmony within a decision-making group, with this desire overriding realistic appraisal of alternatives

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•Individual power

The power of the individual and the power of the situation interact

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stereotype

A generalized belief about a group of people

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stereotype threat

when facing a negative stereotype, the fear that you will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype creates anxiety and lessens performance

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prejudice

unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group (its members)/supported by stereotypes/Works at both conscious and (more) unconscious level

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Why does prejudice arise?

•social inequalities

•social divisions

•emotional scapegoating

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ingroup

people with whom one shares a common identity

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outgroup

perceived as different from one's ingroup

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Ingroup bias

tendency to favor one's own group

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interpersonal attraction

liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person

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factors of interpersonal attraction

-Physical attractiveness

-Proximity: physical or geographical nearness

-Similarity (or complementary)

-Reciprocity of liking: tendency of people to like other people who like them in return

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64

mere exposure effect

repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction

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aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

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indirect aggression

Attempt to hurt another without obvious face to face contact

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direct aggression

Intended to hurt someone in their face

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emotional

Hurtful behavior stemming from anger

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Instrumental Aggression

Hurting another to accomplish another non aggressive goal

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biological influences on aggression

•genetic (twin studies, Y chromosome)

•neural (limbic system-amygdala)

•biochemical (testosterone)

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Psychological factors

•dealing with aversive events

•learning aggression is rewarding

•observing models of aggression

•acquiring social scripts

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72

altruism

prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself

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Reciprocal Altruism

to help others with the understanding that they should in turn help us

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bystander effect

the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help

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diffusion of responsibility

a person fails to take responsibility for action or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility

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How can you help increase helping?

Reduce ambiguity/Cry for help/Appoint someone

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Kitty Genovese

woman whose murder in front of witnesses led to research on bystander effect

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Personality

individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

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Perspectives on Personality

psychodynamic, humanistic, trait, social-cognitive

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Freud's theory of personality

Psychodynamic theories of personality view behavior as a dynamic interaction between the conscious and unconscious mind

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id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

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Superego

part of the personality that acts as a moral center

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ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality

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conscious (ego)

• Awareness

• Rational

• Goal-directed thoughts

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Unconcious (Id)

• Reservoir of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories

• Ugly contents of unconscious are kept hidden by repression

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86

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

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Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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Electra complex

Conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals

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Repression

banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness, "motivated forgetting"

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Regression

retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, "juvenile behavior"

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reaction formation

converts thoughts or feelings into opposite ones

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Denial

refuses to acknowledge a problem

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Projection

disguises own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

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Rationalization

offers self-justifying explanations instead of real, more threatening unconscious reasons for actions, "making excuses"

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Displacement

diverts sexual/ aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening one, "safer outlet"

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Sublimation

channels sexual/aggressive energies into socially acceptable behaviors

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free association (psychoanalysis)

-leads to painful, embarrassing memories

- once release or reach "catharsis" the patient feels better

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dream analysis

interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams

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Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudian; introduced concept of "inferiority complex"

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Karen Horney

Neo-Freudian; offered feminist critique of Freud's theory

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