Biology DAT

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Which of the following refers to the minimal amount of air always present in the lungs?

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1

Which of the following refers to the minimal amount of air always present in the lungs?

Residual Volume

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2

Which of the following refers to the volume of air moving in the lungs during normal breathing?

Tidal volume

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3

The maximum volume of air that can be expired after a maximum inhalation

Vital Capacity

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4

Which of the following are responsible for the alignment of the chromosomes along the metaphase plate (equatorial plate) during mitosis?

Centrosomes

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5

monosaccharide

a single sugar molecule (glucose and fructose)

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6

Lipids

hydrophobic molecules that function in insulation, energy storage, make up structural components, and participate in endocrine signaling

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Triglycerides

Describe structures consisting of three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone. Can be saturated or unsaturated. Are lipids

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Saturated tryglycerides

contain no double bonds and have straight chains; are bad for health

<p>contain no double bonds and have straight chains; are bad for health</p>
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Unsaturated triglycerides

contain double bonds that cause kinks in chains; are better for health

<p>contain double bonds that cause kinks in chains; are better for health</p>
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10

Phospholipids

Are lipids composed of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol backbone

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Amphipathic

Describes a molecule that has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties

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12

Steroids

A lipid; comprised of three 6-membered rings and one 5-membered ring; include hormones and cholesterol; 4 ringed structures

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13

Heterocyclic compound

cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its rings.

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14

Adipocytes

A lipid; specialized fat cells in two categories: white and brown fat cells

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15

White fat cells (category of adipocytes)

Composed mainly of triglycerides with a thin layer of cytoplasm around it

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16

Brown fat cells (category of adipocytes)

have considerable cytoplasm, lipid droplets scattered throughout, and lots of mitochondria

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17

Glycolipids

similar to phospholipids but have a carbohydrate group instead of a phosphate group

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18

Lipoproteins

Lipids are insoluble so they are transported in the blood via these, which are lipid cores surrounded by phospholipids and apolipoproteins

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19

In cold weather

Cell membranes become more rigid. In order to avoid cell membrane rigidity, cholesterol and mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids are incorporated into the membrane (in fatty acids)

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20

In warm weather

cell membranes become more fluid ad flexible. In order to avoid cell membrane collapse, cholesterol is added to restrict movement. (in fatty acids)

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21

Glycosidic bonds are considered which type of bond?

Covalent

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22

Storage proteins

casein in milk, ovalbumin in egg whites, and zein in corn seeds

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23

transport proteins

hemoglobin carries oxygen, cytochromes carry electrons

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24

Enzymes

catalyze reactions in both forward and reverse directions; almost always considered proteins

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25

Cofactors

non-protein molecules that assist enzymes; the union of this and enzyme is a holoenzyme

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Simple Protein classification

Formed entirely of amino acids (ex Albumins & Globulins, Scleroprotein)

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Conjugated Protein classification

Simple protein + non-protein (ex. lipoprotein, mucoprotein, chromoprotein, metalloprotein)

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Primary Protein structure

Sequence of amino acids connected by peptide bonds

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Secondary Protein structure

3D shape resulting from hydrogen bonding between amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent amino acids (alpha helix or beta sheet)

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Tertiary Protein Structure

3D structure that forms primarily due to non-covalent interactions between amino acid R groups (non-covalent bonds including H-bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic effect)

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Disulfide bonds

Strong type of covalent bond between cysteines

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Cysteine

a sulfur containing amino acid

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Quaternary Protein structure

3D shape of a protein that is a grouping of two or more separate peptide chains

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term image

Protein Structures

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3 main protein categories

Globular proteins, Fibrous/structural proteins, Membrane proteins

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36

Globular proteins

somewhat water soluble, mostly dominated by tertiary structure, have a diverse range of functions

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Fibrous/structural proteins

not water soluble, mostly dominated by secondary structure, are made of long polymers, function to maintain and add strength to cellular and matrix structure

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Membrane proteins

Includes proteins that function as membrane pumps, channels, or receptors

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Protein Denaturation

the protein is reversed back to its primary structure; usually irreversible

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40

Protein digestion

Eliminates all protein structure, including primary structure

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41

Nucleotides

Monomers that make up nucleic acids. Consists of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group

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42

Nucleosides

sugar+nitrogenous base

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Purines (nitrogenous bases)

consist of 2 rings; include adenine and guanine

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Pyrimidines (nitrogenous bases)

consists of 1 ring, and include cytosine, uracil, and thymine

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45

Cell theory

states that

  1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells

  2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all organisms

  3. All cells come from preexisting, living cells

  4. Cells carry hereditary information

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46

RNA World Hypothesis

proposes that self-replicating RNA molecules were precursors to current life. Also states that RNA stores genetic information like DNA and catalyzes chemical reactions

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47

Central Dogma of Genetics

states that biological information cannot be transferred backwards from protein to either protein or nucleic acid. Information must travel DNA → RNA→proteins

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48

Stereomicroscope

Uses visible light to view the surface of a sample

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Compound microscope

Uses visible light to view a thin section of a sample

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Phase Contrast Microscope

Uses light phases and contrast for a detailed observation of living organisms, including internal structures if thin

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51

Anabolic

Small molecules are assembled into large ones. Energy is required

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Catabolic

Large molecules are broken down into small ones. Energy is released

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53

enzymes are…

Globular proteins that act as catalysts

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54

Krebs Cycle

  • Occurs in mitochondrial matrix

  • aerobic process

  • A step in cellular respiration

<ul><li><p>Occurs in mitochondrial matrix</p></li><li><p>aerobic process</p></li><li><p>A step in cellular respiration</p></li></ul>
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Pyruvate decarboxylation

  • Occurs in mitochondrial matrix

  • A step in cellular respiration

<ul><li><p>Occurs in mitochondrial matrix</p></li><li><p>A step in cellular respiration</p></li></ul>
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56

Membrane proteins

  • Channel Proteins

  • Recognition Proteins

  • Ion channels

  • Porins

  • Carrier proteins

  • Transport proteins

  • Adhesion proteins

  • Receptor proteins

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Channel proteins

provide a passageway through the membrane for hydrophilic, polar, and charged substances

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Recognition proteins

type of glycoprotein that is used to distinguish between self and foreign

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Ion channels

used to pass ions across the membrane and referred to as gated channels in nerve and muscle cells

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Porins

allow the passage of certain ions and small polar molecules

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61

Which membrane protein increases the rate of water passing in kidney and plant root cells?

Porins

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62

Which membrane protein is specific to movement across the membrane via integral membrane protein?

Carrier Proteins

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63

Active transport requires…

ATP

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64

facilitated diffusion does not…

require ATP

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65

Receptor proteins

serve as binding sites for hormones and other trigger molecules

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66

Glycocalyx

a carbohydrate coat that covers the outer face of the cell wall of some bacteria and the outer face of the plasma membrane in some animal cells

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67

The nucleoid is found only in…

prokaryote cells

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68

Peroxisomes

Organelles common in the liver and kidney that function to breakdown substances

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69

phospholipid membrane is made of…

phosphate head and two fatty acids

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70

The phospholipid membrane is…

amphipathic

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71

Amphipathic

having both a polar and non-polar portion

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72

The phosphate head in phospholipid membranes is ____ while the fatty acid tails are____

hydrophilic, hydrophobic

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73

What most easily diffuses through the phospholipid bilayer?

hydrophobic molecules

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74

Cholesterol is used for what in the animal cell membrane?

Structural support

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75

What is used for structural support in prokaryote cell membranes?

Hopanoids

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76

What is used for structural support in the cell membrane of plant cells?

Sterols

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77

What is the purpose of MHC I molecules?

to distinguish self from foreign cells

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78

How do Rhizopoda move in their environment?

Pseudopodia

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79

Organisms that can be classified as slime or water molds fall under which kingdom?

Protista

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80

similarity between fungus-like protists and fungus?

Both reproduce by forming spores

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81

Saprobes

Obtain energy from dead, decaying matter

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82

When slime molds experience food deprivation what is excreted?

cAMP

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83

When cellular slime molds are in harsh conditions, what do individuals do?

aggregate to form a moving slug

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84

The 3 main modes of transportation across a cell membrane

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport

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85

The order of stages in interphase

G1→ G0 → S → G2

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86

Vegetative Propagation

A form of asexual reproduction in plants that produces genetically identical offspring

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87

Fern

Vascular, seedless plant. Phylum pterophyta

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88

Dicot angiosperms have

two cotyledon, broad leaf, network of veins, vascular bundles in a ring, flowers in multiples of 4 or 5, taproots

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89

monocot angiosperms have

single cotyledon, long narrow leaf, parallel veins, vascular bundles scattered, flowers in multiples of 3, fibrous root system

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90

What plant tissue type makes up majority of the plants mass?

Ground tissue

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91

What is the most prominent ground tissue in plants?

Parenchyma

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92

The left lung is ____ and consists of..

smaller, 2 lobes

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93

The right lung is ____ and consists of …

larger, 3 lobes

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94

Pleurae

membranous cover surrounding lungs; has two layers

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95

Two layers of the pleurae

Visceral and parietal

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96

The space in between the visceral and parietal is called

the intrapleural space

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97

Visceral pleura

Lines the surface of the lungs

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98

Parietal pleura

lines the inside of the chest cavity

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99

Circulatory system

Responsible for circulating and transporting nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and red blood cells throughout the body

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Protozoans

Unicellular animal-like protists

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