behavioral neuroscience exam #2

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what sense do we rely on more than any other sense?

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1

what sense do we rely on more than any other sense?

vision

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2

why do we know the most about the visual system?

it is a direct pathway

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3

what is sensation?

the physical stimulus from environment to sensory organs to brain

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4

what is perception?

the psychological interpretation of physical stimulus

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5

what is the lens?

flexes and focuses the light onto the retina; has accommodation

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6

what is accommodation?

the process by which the eye's lens changes shape, bends, and flexes to focus near or far objects on the retina

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7

what happens to the lens as you age?

the lens stiffens and it does not flex or focus as well, impairing vision

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8

what is binocular disparity?

the brain takes 2d images and perceives it as 3d; each eyeball has a slightly different image and by comparing the 2, the brain makes a 3d image with depth

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9

what is the pupil?

The hole in the centre where light enters

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10

what is the iris?

the muscle that controls how much light gets into the eye; it is what constricts and dilates the pupil

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11

what is the cornea?

the transparent layer that protects the eye

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12

what is the retina?

inner surface of the eye containing 5 layers of visual receptors, including rods and cones in the last layer

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13

what are cones?

retinal receptors that fire under bright light for fine detail and color (acuity)

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14

what are rods?

retinal receptors that fire under lowlight/dark conditions for movement (specificity)

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15

what happens to the light by the time it reaches the rods and cones?

the image sent to the retina must pass thru 4 layers before it gets to the rods and cones so the light gets distorted and diffuse

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16

what is the fovea?

the concave indentation in the retina where light is not distorted as much and it contains only cones so it has good acuity; fovea is thinner than the rest of the retina

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17

what is a blindspot?

a hole in the visual field where you are not receiving any visual information but our brain fills it in so we cannot see our blindspot

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18

what is the optic chiasm?

the x-shaped structure where visual information gets flipped; L goes to R and R goes to L

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19

how does the brain perceive an image as 3d?

originally, the image put on the retina is upside down and 2d.

- the brain uses intersecting lines to create depth and make the image 3d

- binocular disparity (the brain takes 2d images and perceives it as 3d; each eyeball has a slightly different image and by comparing the 2, the brain makes a 3d image with depth)

- motion gives details; things move faster when they are closer and things move slower when they are farther which also creates depth

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20

What does contralateral mean?

both eyes take in info from the L and R visual fields, but only info from the L visual field gets sent to the right hemisphere and vice versa via the optic chiasm

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21

how many cones do we have?

7 million

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22

how many rods do we have?

120 million

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23

What is phototopic vision?

when cones are firing under bright light; brighter spectrum of colors

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24

what is scotopic vision?

when the rods are firing under lowlight; darker spectrum; night vision

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25

what is the purkinje effect?

as we shift from bright to low light, we detect colors differently; under bright light, we are more sensitive to reds, oranges, etc. under lowlight, we are more sensitive to purples, violets, etc.

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26

why do humans have less cones and more rods than other species?

humans rely on intelligence and conciousness more than vision, which is why humans have less cones --> worse details ---> worse vision; humans need to sense movements more so they have more rods

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27

where are rods primarily found?

peripheral vision

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28

what are saccades?

the jump in between fixation point to fixation point

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29

What is change blindness?

temporary blindness that occurs during saccades (the jump between fixation points)

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30

what is a fixation?

the point your eye jumps to and focuses on

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31

what do our eyes do when we read?

the eye path jumps around, forward and backward, and we do not read every word; we read in 7-9 letter increments

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32

What is inattentional blindness?

failing to see or notice something that is in our visual field because we are not paying attention to it; so you do not perceive it

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33

what is the retina-geniculate-striate pathways?

information from retina to lateral geniculate nuclei to striate pathways

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34

what is the striate cortex?

primary visual cortex located in occipatal lobe

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35

what is the lateral geniculate nuclei?

the thalamus, with 6 layers of cells within it, broken up into M and P pathways

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36

What is the P pathway?

parvocellular: the top 4 layers in the thalamus, deal with fine details and color, get their information from the cones

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37

what is the M pathway?

magnocellular: the bottom 2 layers in the thalamus, deal with movement, get their information from rods

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38

what is retinopic organization?

the entire visual pathway is organized/mapped out based on the retina; where rods and cones fire on the retina, the rest of the information will be processed in the same locations on the lateral geniculate nuclei and striate cortex

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39

how do humans detect edges?

mach bands, contrast enhancement, lateral inhibition

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40

what are mach bands?

brain makes up fake lines/edges when they'e not actually there; the lighter side has more stimulation so a stronger signal, the darker side has less stimulation

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41

what is contrast enhancement?

the neurons on either side of the light and dark shade are firing more and less than they are supposed to, thus enhancing the contrast

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42

what is lateral inhibition?

when a neuron is stimulated, it inhibits all neurons around it in terms of how strong they fire in order to conserve energy; the stronger a neuron is stimulated, the more it will inhibit other neurons; this is what causes contrast enhancement

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43

Describe Hubel and Weisel's work about the receptive fields

they found on-center and off-center cells which are ganglion cells that are round and they help create contrast/determine the edges of objects; they tested a cat's visual field and the neurons only fired when seeing the line/edge of the projector slide

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44

what are on-center cells?

cells that only fire if light hits the center of the cell

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45

what are off-center cells?

cells that only fire if light hits the outside of the cells

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46

what is a simple cortical cell?

rectangular cell in the cortex that works exactly like on and off center cells

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47

what is a complex cortical cell?

a cell in the cortex that is way more complex and does not respond only to on and off cortex

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48

what is columnar organization?

columns in the cortex; each simple cortical cell fires to a different line orientation

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49

what is the pathway between simple and complex cortical cells and on/off center cells?

on/off center --> simple cortical --> complex cortical

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50

what is the component theory (Young 1802)?

if we mix certain colors, we can make more colors, so we must have different receptors in our eyes that mix different waves of light to perceive different colors

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51

what is the opponent processing theory (Hering 1878)?

we must have receptors in the eye that respond to opposite colors; the after image of one color is the opposite

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52

Which theory of color vision is correct?

both; we have B, G, and R cones and when light comes in it stimulates these cones and gives us the perception of other colors

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53

what is color constancy?

depending on the source of the light, the amount of light reflecting off an object will be different; but our perceptual system perceives it as the same color regardless of the source of light

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54

What is the retinex theory (Land 1977)?

even though the source of light changes, the efficiency at which an object reflects light remains the same

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55

what is a scotoma?

blind spot

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56

what is blindsight?

the ability to respond to visual stimuli without consciously perceiving them

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57

the sensorimotor system uses parallel processing. what does this mean?

every area works together and communicates at the same time

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58

what does it mean for the sensorimotor system to be functionally segregated?

each area specializes in processing certain types of info and works together

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59

the sensorimotor system is a feedback loop. what does this mean?

motor output is guided by sensory input

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60

how does learning change the nature and locus of sensorimotor control?

at first we are consciously aware of our actions, such as driving or walking, but as we practice, it becomes automatic. Learning an action to the point of automaticity allows for efficiency as it frees up higher order loci of sensorimotor control, so we can designate more energy to complex things.

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61

can automaticity be taken over?

yes

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62

what is an action slip?

sensorimotor programs are primed by environmental things (ex. turning on a light switch if the light is already on)

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63

what is the pathway of the sensorimotor system?

starting in the brain and come out through the brainstem to the skeletal muscles

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64

what is the posterior parietal association cortex?

parietal lobe where the integration of sensory information and objects in space

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65

describe apraxia.

difficulty in initiating voluntary movements, problems with planning of motor coordination; usually caused by damage to left parietal lobe; affects fine motor skills more severely but also can affect gross motor skills; actions may be able to be done with automaticity but often struggles when the action is controlled; ex. stuttering

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66

what is the egocentric left?

damage to right side of the parietal lobe causes an attentional deficiency to one half of the body, usually the left side

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67

what is object-based neglect?

the only thing one cannot see is one particular object in their visual field

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68

damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex causes what?

damage causes problems interacting with external world and stimuli ex. catching things/reaching for things

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69

what does the supplementary motor area deal with?

sensory input

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70

What does the premotor cortex do?

visual information

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71

how many areas of the secondary motor cortex are there?

we used to think there were 2, now we identify 7, but we do not know exactly where the boundaries of each area are

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72

what are the 7 areas of the secondary motor cortex?

- supplementary motor area and presupplementary motor area

- dorsal premotor area and ventral premotor area

- 3 cingulate motor areas

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73

what happens if you damage your primary motor cortex?

damage to the area can cause difficulty with smoothness, speed, and accuracy of movements; one may also develop asterognosia (cannot determine objects with eyes closed)

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74

what does it mean for the primary motor cortex to be somatotopically organized?

it is organized according to the body

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75

describe the motor homunculus.

face and hands are even bigger than in the somatosensory; ears are hella small

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76

describe the cerebellum in regards to the sensorimotor system.

it deals with learning and storage of sensory motor programs (muscle memory); it is 10% the size of the brain but contains 1/2 of all neurons; damage to the cerebellum causes very severe deficits; also involved in learning cognitive programs (learning patterns/repetition)

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77

describe the basal ganglia in regards to the sensorimotor system.

associated with voluntary motor movements; deals with learning of sensorimotor and cognitive programs, such as stimulus-response relationships

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78

which direction do descending motor pathways go?

toward the external world

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79

describe the dorsolateral region of the descending motor pathways.

it projects into the distal parts of the arms and legs; the dorsolateral corticospinal tract is a direct pathway dealing with lower leg muscles. the dorsolateral corticorubrospinal tract is an indirect pathway dealing with distal areas such as hands, feet, wrists

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80

describe the ventromedial region of the descending motor pathways.

deals with proximal areas such as shoulders, thighs. ventromedial corticospinal tract is a direct pathway and the ventromedial cortico-brainstem-spinal tract is the indirect pathway

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81

what does the ventromedial cortico-brainstem-spinal tract contain?

1) tectum: inferior and superior colliculi that deal with processing auditory and visual info

2) vestibular nucleus: balance

3) reticular formation: in the brainstem and in this pathway it deals with species specific movements such as walking and climbing

4) motor nuclei of cranial nerves that control the face

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82

what is the stretch reflex?

sudden impact on muscle that helps guide motor output. ex. knee jerk reaction

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83

what is the withdrawal reflex?

when you do something painful and you automatically send a signal to stop the action, bypassing the brain ex. moving hand off of a hot stove

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84

what is reciprocal innervation?

as antagonistic muscles work, one works a lot and one works to a lesser degree in order to guide movement smoothly

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85

what is recurrent collateral inhibition?

when a motor neuron fires, it immediately shifts responsibility next time to a motor neuron around it to avoid fatigue and overwork

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86

What do ligaments connect?

bone to bone

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87

what do tendons connect?

bone to muscle

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88

what is a motor unit?

the smallest unit of motor activity that contains a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that it innervates (touches)

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89

what is a motor pool?

all motor units that innervate a single muscle

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90

what is a fast twitch muscle?

consumes more oxygen because it contracts quickly and fatigues quickly

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91

what is a slow twitch muscle?

consumes less oxygen because it does not fire as quickly or strongly and does not fatigue as quickly

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92

what is a flexor?

a muscle that bends a joint; ex. bicep

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93

what is an extensor?

muscle that straightens a joint; ex. tricep

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94

what are synergistic muscles?

muscles that work together for a joint movement; ex. the 2 muscles that make the bicep

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95

what are antagonistic muscles?

muscles that oppose each other/do opposite jobs; ex. biceps vs. triceps

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96

what is an isometric contraction?

muscle contracts but does not change length or actually move anything; ex. plank

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97

what is a dynamic contraction?

This term refers to any muscle action that produces joint movement. ex. bicep curl

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98

what causes a muscle to contract?

nerves firing electric current to fibers

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99

what are golgi tendon organs?

located where bone and muscle connects; they send info to the brain about the amount of stretch that is occurring and cause the muscle to go lax so that it protects the muscle from injury

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100

what are muscle spindles?

Sensory receptors within muscles

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