A & P Unit 3 Lecture Exam

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  • requires oxygen

  • in mitochondria

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1
  • requires oxygen

  • in mitochondria

aerobic respiration

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6 second contraction

  • produce enough ATP to meet needs

stored ATP

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15 seconds contraction

  • used to convert ADP → ATP

  • produce enough ATP to meet needs

creatine phosphate

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  • in cytoplasm

  • without oxygen

  • 2.5 X faster than aerobic respir.

  • produce enough ATP to meed needs

anaerobic respiration

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↑ aerobic respiration

  • cell uses oxygen in myoglobin

  • cardiovascular + respiratory systems have ↑ O2 delivery to tissues → ↑ ATP production aerobically

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as long as cardiovascular + respiratory systems can deliver sufficient O2 to tissues to make all ATP needed for contraction aerobically →

activity continues

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what happens when cardiovascular + respiratory can no longer deliver sufficient O2 to tissues to make all ATP needed for contraction aerobically →

aerobic respiration also kicks in → continues for just a few minutes

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what produces enough ATP to meet needs

  1. stored ATP

  2. creatine phosphate

  3. anaerobic respiration

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  • the amount of O2 needed after exercise to return body to pre-exercise condition

  • need O2 to resupply myoglobin w O2

  • need O2 to ↑ ATP production aerobically

excess post-exercise O2 consumption (EPOC)

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what is required for:

  1. sweat to cool the body

  2. adjust pH

  3. have ↑ metabolism

  4. reapair tissues

ATP

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muscle fiber:

  • have lots myoglobin (store O2)

  • more capillaries + mitochondria

  • smaller diameter

  • fewer myofibrils

  • adapted for aerobic respiration

  • fatigue slow

  • postural muscles, leg muscles

type I fibers (slow twitch red)

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muscle fiber:

  • less myoglobin

  • fewer mitochondria

  • fewer capillaries

  • larger diameters → take longer for O2 diffuse through cells

  • more myofibrils

  • stronger contraction

  • adapted for anaerobic respiration

  • fatigue quicker, short period of time

  • more enzymes in cytoplasm for anaerobic resp.

  • store more glycogen

  • quick mvmt muscles: eyes, hands, arms

type II B (fast twitch white fibers)

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intermediate between type I and type II B

type II A (fast twitch pink/intermediate)

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type of exercise:

  • making muscles more "red"

  • ↑ myoglobin

  • ↑ mitochondria

  • ↑ capillaries

aerobic exercise

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type of exercise:

  • make muscles big + strong

  • anaerobic activity

  • make muscles more "white"

  • ↑ glycogen storage

  • ↑ enzymes in cytoplasm for anaerobic resp

  • make muscles bigger

  • ↑ myofibrils in each muscle cell

  • ↑ CT around muscle cells

strength training exercise

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what makes muscles "bigger"?

↑ myofibrils in each muscle cell

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motor units differ in:

  1. number of muscle cells in motor unit (10-sev 100s)

  2. sensitivity to stimuli (some respond to weak/strong)

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only part of neuron that initiates impulses, send info to other neurons, muscle/gland cells

axon

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part of neuron that receive info from environment, sensory receptors, other neurons

dendrites

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one neuron + all skeletal muscle cells it contacts

motor unit

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usually closed, opens in response to stimuli → allow calcium to diffuse in because more calcium outside cell than in

calcium channel

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filled with Ach

  • type of neurotransmitter

synaptic vesicles

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Na+ channels, usually closed, open when Ach binds to them

  • allow Na+ to enter because more Na+ outside cell than in

Ach receptors

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single cx in response to single stimulus

muscle twitch

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impulse travels along nerve, crosses to muscle at neuromuscular junction

  • calcium released, cross bridges form

lag period

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power stroke alternating with recovery stroke

cx phase

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pump calcium back into S.R

  • 0 cross bridges form

  • 0 cx

relaxation

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<p>red</p>

red

stimulus / lag period

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<p>blue arrow</p>

blue arrow

cx phase

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<p>orange</p>

orange

relaxation

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stronger stimulus reaches threshold more motor units

  • more muscle cells cx

multiple motor unit summation

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lowest stimulus where observational cx occurs

  • threshold is just strong enough to reach threshold of motor unit

threshold stimulus

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no ↑ in cx strength after this event

  • lowest stimulus strength where all motor units respond

maximal stimulus

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<p>dark blue circle</p>

dark blue circle

subthreshold stimuli

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<p>value circled in light blue</p>

value circled in light blue

threshold stimulus

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<p>value circled in pink</p>

value circled in pink

maximal stimulus

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<p>values in green</p>

values in green

multiple motor unit summation

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<p>values in peach</p>

values in peach

supermaximal stimuli

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more calcium available if partial relaxation → not all calcium returned to SR → more calcium = more cross bridges = stronger cx

wave summation

  • partial relaxation between cx

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muscle stimulated to cx again before it begins to relax

tetany

  • sustained cx

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<p>purple</p>

purple

wave summation

  • partial relaxation b/t cx

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<p>blue</p>

blue

tetany

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still some tension on tendon if muscle not completely relaxed → less slack to take up

↑ frequency of stimuli

  • tetany

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change amount of overlap b/t actin + myosin filaments →

changes cx strength

  • change length of muscle

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optimum length for sarcomeres →

provides optimal overlap b/t actin + myosin

  • change length of muscle

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can form cross bridges →

gets lots of sliding of actin over myosin

  • change length of muscle

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overlap just enough so all myosin heads can bind to actin

change length of muscle

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muscle too stretched = little overlap b/t actin + myosin

→ few cross bridges can from →weaker cx

  • change length of muscle

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muscle too short = so much overlap, sarcomere so short

→ little sliding of actin over myosin → weaker cx

  • change length of muscle

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type of muscle:

  • striated: has actin + myosin arranged into sarcomeres → alternating arrangement

  • involuntary: can initiate its own impulse to cause heartbeat

  • intercalated discs b/t cells

  • less SR than skeletal muscle

cardiac muscle

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highly folded PM b/t cells ↑ surface area lots of desmosomes (hold cells together)

intercalated discs

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calcium entering cell from extracellular fluid → release more calcium from SR

calcium induced calcium release

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type of muscle:

  • involuntary

  • walls hallow muscular organs

  • smooth, no striations

  • actin + myosin filaments present, but not arranged into sarcomeres → arranged diagonally

  • myosin filaments have heads along entire length

  • no Z discs, has dense bodies instead that actin filaments attach to

smooth muscle

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  • actin + myosin present, not arranged into sarcomeres

  • myosin filaments have heads along entire length

allow cx of very stretched muscle

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type of muscle:

  • has intermediate filaments

  • no troponin

  • little SR can cx from impulse, hormones, stretching, local tissue conditions

smooth muscle

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each cell must get its own impulse from neuron to cx

  • each cell acts individually

  • bronchi, walls of larger arteries, arrector pili muscles

multi-unit smooth muscle

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cells joined by gap junctions impulse travels cell to cell thru gap junctions wave-like pattern of cx most viscera move something thru particular organ

single unit (visceral) smooth muscle

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decrease in size of muscle b/c disuse or denervation

  • < 1 year: muscle cells lose myofibrils, REVERSIBLE

  • 1 year: muscle cells die, replaced by scar tissue

atrophy

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followed prolonged atrophy

  • scar tissue shrinks, cause permanent flexing at the joints

contractures

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  • genetic disease

  • mother → son

  • lack of dystrophin protein

  • smooth muscle affected

  • contractures

  • no cure

  • no dystrophin: muscle cells tear to point they can't be replaced/repaired → muscle cells start to die, replaced by scar tissue

duchenne muscular dystrophy

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  • autoimmune disease

  • women>men

  • antibodies produced, block some Ach receptors on sarcolemma

  • fewer Ach receptors produced → ↓ Ach binding to receptors ↓ muscle cx

  • facial muscles affected first

  • problems speaking, swallowing, control eye mvmts

myesthenia gravis

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TX duchenne muscular dystrophy

  • PT

  • bracing

  • walking + breathing assistance

  • steroids to slow the progression

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TX myesthenia gravis

  • immune suppressing drugs, steroids Ach-E inhibitors → inhibit breakdown Ach →more Ach binding to receptors

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tear/stretch of muscle tissue TX = RICE

strain

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  • weakness in organ wall, organ can protrude

hernia

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most common hernia, in inguinal canal

  • men>women due to larger inguinal canal

inguinal hernia

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hernia in umbilical region

  • second most common

umbilical hernia

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hernia where small intestine returned to abdomen cavity manually

reducible hernia

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hernia that is not reducible

  • may become strangulated

  • vessels of small int compressed → no blood supply to tissue → tissue dies

irreducible hernia

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multiple layers of PM wrapped around axon

myelin sheath

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  • surrounded by myelin sheath

  • insulates + protects axon

  • ↑ speed impulse conduction

myelination of axons

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type of cell that forms myelin sheath in peripheral nervous system

  • line up along axon → wrap around axon many times → multiple layers PM wrapped around axon

schwann cells

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all cytoplasm + organelles get squeezed to outer margins of schwann cells

neurilemma

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areas of axon with no myelin (b/t myelinated areas)

nodes of ranvier

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provide white color (white matter)

myelin/myelinated fibers (axon)

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form myelin sheath in central nervous system

  • has multiple flat extensions

  • each wrap around part of axon many times → form myelin sheath

oligodendrocytes

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when does myelin sheath begin forming?

before birth, not complete until adulthood

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  • autoimmune disease

  • women>men

  • destruction of myelin sheath in CNS

  • immune system cells damage myelin in CNS

  • replaced scar tissue

  • interfere with impulse conduction

  • ↓ muscle activity

  • cognitive/balance impaired

  • ↓ sensation

  • burn/tingle sensation

  • facial muscles affected first (slurred speech, difficult swallowing)

multiple sclerosis

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TX multiple sclerosis

immune suppressing drugs plasma phoresis

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classification of neurons

  1. structure

  2. function

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type of neuron classified by structure:

  • 99% neurons

  • many dendrites, one axon

  • all motor neurons

  • all association neurons (interneurons)

multipolar neurons

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type of neuron classified by structure:

  • 2 cytoplasmic extensions with cell body b/t

  • 1 axon, 1 serves as dendrite

  • some sensory neurons (eyes, nose)

bipolar neurons

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type of neuron classified by structure:

  • one long cytoplasmic extension, neuron cell body to side

  • distal, unmyelinate = dendrites

  • myelinated = axon

unipolar neurons

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type of neuron:

  • most unipolar, some bipolar

  • body → CNS

sensory neuron

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type of neuron:

  • CNS → body

  • muscles/glands

  • all multipolar

motor neurons

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type of neuron:

  • interconnecting neurons/association

  • carry info neuron to neuron in CNS

  • all multipolar

interneurons

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  • gray matter

  • info integrated, processed, decisions made

  • most in CNS

clusters neurons cell bodies

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where is gray matter located in CNS

  • outer surface brain "cortex"

  • inner regions spinal cord

  • nuclei : other clusters neuron cell bodies

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where is gray matter in peripheral NS

ganglion

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clusters neuron cell bodies (gray matter) in peripheral NS

ganglion

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white matter

myelinated axons

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  • carry info place to place

white matter - myelinated disc

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bundles of white matter in CNS

tracts

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carry info place to place in brain or b/t brain + spinal cord

tracts

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bundles of white fibers in peripheral NS

nerves

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carry info back and forth from body to CNS

nerves

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make up the control system

nervous + endocrine

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nerve impulses + neurotransmitters

nervous system

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communicate with hormones

endocrine system

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part of NS that includes brain + spinal cord only

CNS

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