comm 1041 final exam

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adaptability

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chapters 7-12

224 Terms

1

adaptability

(chaotic to rigid) a family’s ability to modify and respond to changes in the family’s power structure and roles

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2

agape

spiritual, altruistic, sacrificial (parent-child)

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3

young adult friendships

around college age

  • Dependent on life changes such as college, jobs, romantic relationships, moving, or starting a family

  • Value reciprocation of caring, trust, commitment, self-disclosure, helpfulness, and support

  • Help us build skills for successful romantic relationships and give us people to confide in for advice or manage stress of transitions

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4

intimate partner violence (IPV)

partner 1 is violent/controlling and partner 2 is violent and non controlling or nonviolent (11%)

  • Perpetrated almost exclusively by men

  • Most frequent use of violence

    • Most likely to escalate to injury

  • Most likely to result in severe injury, PTSD/psychological stress, seeking medical/legal assistance

  • Far less likely to incur violent response

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5

manipulation

messages that induce negative feelings in partner and give them responsibility for resolving the situation

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6

communication privacy management (CPM) theory

suggests that we each have individual rules or boundaries about how much private information we share and with whom we share that information

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7

casual turning point

event that brings about a change in a relationship

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8

competitive symmetrical relationship

when both people vie for power and control of decision making

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9

persuasive argumentation

logical appeal to convince your partner to forgo their own interests for yours

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10

nonverbal communication

behavior other than written or spoken language that creates meaning

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11

our faces convey __% of our meaning

55%

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12

vocal cues communication __% of our emotional meaning

38%

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13

principles of nonverbal communication

-nonverbal messages are the primary way we communicate feelings and attitudes

-they’re more believable than verbal messages

-they work with verbal messages to create meaning

-they help people respond and adapt to others

-they play a major role in interpersonal relationships

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14

interaction adaptation theory

describes how people adapt to the communication behavior of others

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15

interactional synchrony

the process of mimicking or mirroring someone’s communication behavior

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16

turning point

specific event or interaction associated with a positive or negative shift in a relationship

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17

kinesics

the study of human movement and gesture

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18

quasi-courtship behaviors

different nonverbal messages you send when you’re interested in someone (suck in your stomach, apply makeup, open body position, etc)

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19

emblems

nonverbal cues that have specific, general understood meanings in a given culture and may actually substitute for a word or phrase

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20

illustrators

nonverbal behaviors that either contradict, accent, or complement a verbal message

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21

affect displays

nonverbal movements and postures used to communicate emotion

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22

regulators

nonverbal messages that control the interaction or flow of communication between two people

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23

adaptors

nonverbal behaviors that help you satisfy a personal need and adapt to the immediate situation

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24

eye contact functions

  • Cognitive function: eye contact provides clues to thinking patterns

  • Monitoring function: look at others to determine whether they like what you are saying

  • Regulatory function: regulates who you are likely to communicate with

  • Expressive function: provides information about the emotions you display

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25

six primary emotional categories

surprise, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, sadness

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26

backchannel cues

vocal cues that signal you wish to speak or stop speaking

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27

proxemics

study of how close or far away from people or objects people position themselves

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28

intimate space

personal or intimate interactions, 0-1.5 feet from someone

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29

personal space

conversations with family or friends, 1.5-4 feet from someone

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30

social space

group interactions, 4-12 feet from someone

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31

public space

interpersonal communication does not typically occur here, 12 feet and beyond from someone

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32

high-contact cultures

tend to be in warmer climates, people will stand closer to others and may initiate touch more

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33

low-contact cultures

tend to be in cooler climates, people prefer their own personal space and tend not to encroach on others’ space

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34

territoriality

the study of how animals (including humans) use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space

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35

territorial markers

things that signify the area has been claimed

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36

tells

nonverbal cues that give away what we are thinking and feeling

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37

immediacy

feelings of liking, pleasure, and closeness communicated by such nonverbal cues as increased eye contact, forward lean, touch, and open body orientation

  • Close proximity, touching, frequent eye contact, inward lean, open body posture, smiling, high pitch

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38

arousal

feelings of interest and excitement communicated by nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, vocal expressions, and gestures

  • Forward lean, head nods, concentrated stare w/ eyes and forehead, animated voice and gestures

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39

dominance

power, status, and control communicated by nonverbal cues

  • Raised/lowered head and gaze, formal/informal posture, handshake style, use of space and artifacts

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40

nonverbal messages are…

  • Ambiguous: what we pick up may not have any meaning or a meaning that is foreign to us

  • Continuous: generally do not have starting or stopping points to aid our understanding

  • Multi Channeled: have numerous sources

  • Culture-based: each culture has unique rules for displaying and interpreting nonverbal behavior

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41

relational development & nonverbal communication

65% of social/relational meaning is communicated nonverbally

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42

facial expressions

movements of our brow, forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, lips/mouth

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43

microexpressions

last less than a half second

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44

vocal cues

voice pitch, rate, volume, intensity and quality; pronunciation and articulation

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45

haptics (touch)

expresses/increases intimacy (vital to our health)

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46

appearance

physical attributes (body shape, facial features, hair/eye/skin color) artifacts

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47

deception cues

concealment/falsehoods/exaggeration

  • More pauses, faster speech, phony smile, more fidgeting, less eye contact, increased eye blinking, more “you” than “I,” negative and passive language

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48

expectancy violation theory

we interpret others’ messages based on how we expect them to behave

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49

emotional contagion theory

people “catch” the emotions of those around them

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50

interpersonal conflict

An interactional dynamic between two interdependent people who perceive incompatibilities, strive to achieve goals and reach solutions

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51

goals

desired end states that individuals try to attain by conflict management

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52

instrumental/task-oriented goals

obtaining and/or resolving disputes over resources like material goods, information, etc

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53

relational goals

negotiate relationship dynamics such as gaining power or building trust

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54

identity goals

image-focused, saving face; for self or partner

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55

conflict style

patterned responses to conflict across situations

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56

avoiding conflict style

  • Refusal to engage/non-action

  • Ignore and side-step any problems

  • Usually a lose-lose situation

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57

obliging/accommodating conflict style

Sacrifice your own interests in favor of what your partner wants

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58

competing conflict style

  • Pursue our own goals at the expense of our partners’

  • Seeks to win while the other person loses

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59

compromising conflict style

  • Negotiate mutual give-and-take concessions

  • Lose-win, lose-win

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60

collaborating conflict style (ideal)

Seeks a solution that meets the needs of both partners without requiring them to give anything up

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61

contending

methods that seek to impose your solution on your partner

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62

ingratiation

making yourself more attractive to your partner so that they are more receptive to your perspective

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63

flattery

exaggerating their attributes/minimizing their weaknesses

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64

opinion conformity

expressing agreements with their opinions

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65

favors

giving them a reward with an eye towards reciprocity

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66

self-presentation

presenting your own qualities/ideas in a way that the other person will find attractive

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67

promises

expressed intentions to reward your partner if they comply with your requests

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68

shaming

causing partner to feel shameful due to private or public condemnation; can be indirect (look of disapproval) or direct (verbal or physical admonition)

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69

tit-for-tat

matching your partner’s behavior at every turn (cooperation and punishment)

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70

threats

expressed intentions to punish your partner if they do not comply with our requests/demands

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71

warning

prediction that your partner will suffer if they don’t comply

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72

deterrent

requests that they avoid doing something

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73

compellent

requests that they take a specific action

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74

coercive commitment

continued punishment which gives your partner control over both parties’ welfare

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75

violence

behavior that is intended to physically injure another person or an object they value

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76

problem-solving

any effort to identify a formula that will satisfy both sides’ goals and interests (compromise, integrative solution)

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77

expanding the pie

strategies which increase available resources

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78

nonspecific compensation

one partner gets what they want and the other is repaid with something unrelated to the issue

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79

logrolling

mutual exchange by parties of concessions on low priorities and acquisition of high priorities

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80

cost cutting

one side gets what it wants by reducing or eliminating the cost to the other

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81

bridging

devising a new option that satisfies both parties’ most important underlying interests

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82

relationship

a connection you establish when you communicate with another person

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83

interpersonal relationship

perception shared by two people of an ongoing interdependent connection that results in the development of relational expectations and varies in intimacy and affection

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84

interpersonal intimacy

the degree to which relational partners mutually confirm, value, and accept each other’s sense of self

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85

affectionate communication

verbal messages, nonverbal cues, and supportive activities that convey love, fondness, or positive regard

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86

relationships of circumstance

form simply because our lives overlap with others’ in some way (family, teachers, classmates, coworkers)

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87

relationships of choice

relationships that we seek out and intentionally develop (friends, romantic partners, spouses, counselors)

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88

complementary relationships

one partner usually dominates or makes most of the decisions

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89

symmetrical relationship

both partners behave toward power in the same way, either both wanting power or both avoiding it

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90

submissive symmetrical relationship

when neither partner wants to take control or make decisions

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91

parallel relationships

involves a shifting back and forth or a balance between the partners

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92

interpersonal attraction

the degree to which you want to 1) form or 2) maintain an interpersonal relationship

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93

short-term initial attraction

degree to which you sense a potential for developing an interpersonal relationship

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94

long-term maintenance attraction

the level of liking or positive feelings that motivate us to maintain or escalate a relationship

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95

proximity

physical nearness to another that promotes communication and thus attraction

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96

physical appearance

nonverbal cues that allow us to assess relationship potential

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97

competence

the quality of being skilled, intelligent, charismatic, and credible

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98

reciprocation of liking

liking those who like us

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99

similarity

we like people whose personalities, values, upbringings, personal experiences, attitudes, and interests are similar to ours

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100

complementary needs

needs that match; each partner contributes something to the relationship that the other partner needs

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