BIO EXAM 3

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What phylum has cellular level of organization?

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140 Terms

1

What phylum has cellular level of organization?

Phylum Porifea (sponges)

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2

What phylum has tissue level of organization?

Phylum Cnidaria and Phlyum Ctenophora (2 jellyfish phyla)

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3

What phylum has organ level of organization?

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

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4

Organ system level of organization

Advanced animal groups (vertebrates)

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5

What are the 4 types of tissues?

  1. Epithelial

  2. Muscle

  3. Nervous

  4. Connective

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6

What are the functions of epithelial tissues?

Sheets of densely packed cells that:

  • cover the body or enclose organs

  • line the walls of body cavities and organs

  • specialized to protect and secrete/absorb ions and organic molecules

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7

All epithelial tissues are considered what?

Asymmetrical or polarized

  • one side rests on the basal laminate (basment membrane) and the other faces the environment

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8

What type of tissue lines the nasal passage?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

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9

What type of tissue lines kidney tubules?

simple cuboidal

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10

What type of tissue lines the urinary system?

transitional

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11

What type of tissue lines the intestines?

simple columnar

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12

What type of tissue lines the lungs?

simple squamous

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13

Wha type of tissue lines the esophagus?

stratified squamous

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14

What are all the types of epithelial tissues?

Simple Squamous

Simple Columnar

Simple Cuboidal

Stratified Squamous

Pseudostratified Columnar

Transitional

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15

Connective Tissues

  • connect, surround, anchor, bind, transport, support

  • form the extracellular matrix (ECM) around cells

    • provides scaffold for attachment

    • protects and cushions

    • mechanical strength

    • transmit information

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16

What are all the types of connective tissues?

  • blood

  • adipose (fat)

  • bone

  • cartilage

  • loose

    • dense

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17

Muscle Tissues

cells specialized to contract (shorten), generating mechanical force

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18

What are the types of muscle tissue?

  • skeletal

  • cardiac

  • smooth

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19

Nervous Tissues

  • complex networks of neurons (nerve cells) and other cells

  • initiate and conduct electical signals from one part of the animals body to another

  • electrical signals produced ion one neuron may stimulate or inhibit other neurons to

    • initiate new electrical signals

    • stimulate muscle clles to contract

    • stimulate glandular cells to release chemicals

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20

What are the functions of neuroglial cells?

  • provide metabolic support, maintenance, ion balance, and cleaning for the neurons

    • produce new glial cells and neurons

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21

Homeostasis

process of adjusting to the external environment and maintaining a stable internal environment

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22

What is the function of the vertebrate integument?

  • protects from abrasion

  • protects against water loss

  • barrier to disease causing pathogens

  • protection from U.V. light

  • temperature regulation

  • contains sensory receptors

  • excretion (limited)

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23

Epidermis

  • mostly dead cells

  • outer layer

  • thinner

  • nutrients diffuse into epidermis from the dermis

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24

What type of epithelium makes up the epidermis?

stratified squamous

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25

What are the 4 cell types in the epidermis?

Langerhan Cells

Melanocytes

Markell Cells

Keratinocytes

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26

Langerhan Cells

defensive cells against pathogens

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27

Melanocytes

  • produce pigment melanin

  • skin coloration

  • protection from U.V. light

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Markell Cells

touch receptors

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Keratinocytes (epidermis)

  • primary cell type

  • produce insoluble protein, keratin

  • amount of keratin increases from inside to outside

  • keratin fills cytoplasm and impairs nutrient diffusion … cells die

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30

Dermis

  • living cells

  • inner layer of skin; thicker than epidermis

  • highly vascularized (vessels)

  • contains sensory structures, vessels, nerves, glands

  • origin of hair, feathers, scales of vertebrates

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31

What are the two sensory structures found in the dermis?

  • meisner’s corpuscles

  • pacinian corpuscles

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32

Meissner’s Corpuscles

light touch

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Pacinian Corpuscles

deep pressure and vibration

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34

Functions of the sweat glands

  • temperature regulation

  • produce sweat (primarily water)

  • release of heat

  • 2.5 million within body

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35

Where are sweat glands found?

within the dermis

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36

Hypodermis

  • lies beneath dermis

  • NOT a layer of skin

  • contains much adipose (fat) tissue

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37

What is the function of the hypodermis?

body contour and insulation

supports skin layer under skin

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38

What are the two types of gut tracts?

  • blind gut

  • tube within a tube

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39

Blind gut tract

  • no cavity between gut and body wall

  • one opening

  • primitive form

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40

Tube within a tube

  • flow through digestive tube

  • body cavity between gut and body wall

  • separate openings (advanced)

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41

What are all the digestive enzymes?

  • carbohydrases (carbohdyrates)

  • proteases (proteins)

  • lipases (lipids and fats)

  • nucleates (nucleic acids)

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42

Food processing in animals happens in what 5 phases?

  1. ingestion

  2. digestion

  3. transport

  4. absorption

  5. egestion

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43

Alimentary Canal

  • single elongated tube with an opening at both ends

  • contains smooth muscle in walls

  • lined by epithelial cells

    • synthesize and secrete digestive enzymes (simple epithelium)

    • secrete hormones

    • transport digested materials

  • several specialized regions

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44

Neurons in the GI tract are activated how?

  • neurons activated by sight and smell of food, presence of food in tract

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45

Region of Reception

  • buccal cavity (mouth and accessory structures)

  • ingestion site and digestion site (chemical and mechnical)

  • jaws, teeth, cheek muscles, tongue, salivary glands

  • pharynx: back of mouth cavity and the point that digestive and respiratory systems cross paths

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46

Region of Conduction

  • esophagus: tube carrying materials from mouth cavity to rest of the alimentary canal

    • neck region

    • through chest

  • conducts food from pharynx to stomach

    • peristalsis: rhythmic, wave like contractions which propel food forward in GI tract (smooth muscle)

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47

Region of storage and more digestion

  • stomach (mostly)

  • muscular nature of stomach helps break up food; partial protein digestion

  • stomach regulates emptying into small intestine

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48

What does the stomach secrete?

  • hydrochloric acid: kills microbes, dissolves particulate matter (parietal cells)

  • pepsinogen: converted into pepsin to help begin protein digestion (chief cells)

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49

Region of Terminal digestion and absorption

  • small intestine

  • nearly all digestion of food and nearly all absorption of food and water

  • hydrolytic enzymes found on apical surface of epithelial cells or secreted by pancreas into lumen

  • products of digestion absorbed across epithelial cells and enter blood

    • vitamins, minerals, and water also absorbed

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50

What are the 3 regions of the small intestine?

  1. Duodenum

  2. Jejunum

  3. Ileum

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51

What are the 3 surface area specializations exhibited by the small intestine?

  1. Plicae Circulares

  2. Villi

  3. Microvilli

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52

Plicae Circulares

  • large folds of the epithelial lining

    • increase surface are 2-3 times

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53

Villus (Villi)

  • finger like projections

    • increase surface area 10 times

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54

Microvilli

  • folding of the plasma membrane of cells lining the villus

    • increase surface area 20 times

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55

Region of H2O absorption and concentration of solids

  • large intestine

  • mammals: about 1.5 meters

  • lack plicae, villi, mircovilli

  • H2O absorbed thorugh epithelium

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56

What accessory digestive glands are NOT apart of the alimentary canal but are apart of the digestive system?

  • pancreas

  • liver

  • gall bladder

  • salivary glands

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57

pancreas

secrete enzymatic juices through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum of the small intestine

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58

liver

produces bile (assists enzymes in breakdown of large fat globules into small forms)

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59

gallbladder

storage of bile (secrete bile into small intestine as needed)

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60

salivary glands

secretes saliva

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61

Central nervous system

brain and nerve cord

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62

Peripheral nervous system

all neurons and their projections that are outside of the CNS

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63

Nervous systems have two classes of cells which are?

  • neurons

  • glia (glial) cells

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64

What is the function of neurons?

send and receive electrical and chemical signals to and from each other and other cells throughout the body

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65

3 structures of the neuron

  • cell body or soma

  • dendrites

  • axon

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66

cell body or soma

  • contains nucleus and organelles

  • processes incoming signals and generates outgoing signals

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dendrites

  • extensions of cell body, single or branching

  • receive incoming electrical and chemical messages form other neurons

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axon

  • extension of cell body

  • carries signal to other cells

  • typically single, varies widely in length

  • may have branches and be wrapped in sheath of myelin

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axon terminals

make contact with nearby cells and transmit signals to them

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70

What are the 3 main types of neurons?

  1. Sensory Neurons (brain and spinal cord)

  2. Motor Neurons

  3. Interneurons

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71

Sensory Neurons (brain and spinal cord)

  • detect information from the outside world of internal body conditions

  • also called afferent neurons: transmit to CNS

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72

Motor Neurons

  • send signals away from CNS

  • efferent neurons to elicit response

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Inteneurons

  • form interconnections between other neurons

  • critical in interpretation of info and elicited response

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74

What are the 5 types of glial cells?

  1. Astrocytes

  2. Microglia

  3. Oligodendrocytes (CNS)

  4. Schwann Cells (PNS)

  5. Radial glial cells

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75

Reflex

  • stimulus form sensory neurons sent to CNS, little or no interpretation (few or no interneurons), signal transmitted to motor neurons to elicit response

  • quick and automatic response

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76

ONLY what types of cells generate electrical signals?

  • neurons

  • muscle cells

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77

Why are neurons polarized?

cell is polarized due to membranes permeability

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78

What are the 3 factors contibruting to resting potential?

  1. Sodium-Potassium Pump

  2. Ion specific channels allow passive ion movement

  3. Polarity

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79

How is speed of nerve impulse rate related in invertebrate animals?

speed is related to axon diameter

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80

How is speed of nerve impulse rate related to vertebrates?

speed is combination of axon diameter and layers of myelin (sheath)

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81

What nervous system organization does Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfishes) have?

  • simplest neural organization

  • nerve net: not a system; simple primitive cells

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82

What nervous system organization does Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) have?

  • 2 anterior ganglia, each with network branching off

  • weak CNS and PNS (no brain or spinal cord)

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83

What nervous system organization does Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) have?

  • brain, ventral nerve cord, simpler motor/sensory neurons

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84

What nervous system organization does Phylum Mollusca (mollusks) have?

  • squids and octopus may be equal to fish (not quite)

  • complex

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85

What nervous system organization does Phylum Arthropoda have?

  • similar to annelida and most mollusks

  • EXCEPT the ‘social insects’: well developed brain, complex social behaviors, learning, division of labor, communication

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86

What makes up the vertebrate (central) nervous system?

brain + spinal cord

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87

The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by what 3 meninges (layers)?

  1. dura mater (outer)

  2. arachnoid (middle)

  3. pia mater (inner)

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88

Between each meninge and within each canal of the spinal cord there contains what?

cerebrospinal fluid

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89

brain spinal cord ratios

  • fish 2:1

  • amphibians 10:1

  • reptiles 25:1

  • birds 35:1

  • humans 55:1

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90

What are the 3 types of skeletons?

  1. exoskeletons

  2. endoskeletons

  3. hydroskeletons

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91

Exoskeletons

external skeleton that surrounds and protects body surface

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92

What type of skeleton do Arthropods have?

Exoskeletons

  • made of chitin

  • tough and durable

  • segmented for movement

  • growth requires molting

  • vary in complexity, thickness, and durability

  • muscles are attached to exoskeletons

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93

Endoskeletons

  • internal structures

  • DO NOT protect body surface, only some internal organs

  • found in echinoderms and vertebrates

  • minerals provide firmness

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94

Echinoderms endoskeletons are composed of what?

  • composed of spiky networks of proteins and minerals or mineralized plate-like structures

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95

Vertebrate endoskeletons are composed of what?

  • composed entirely of cartilage (cartilaginous fishes) or of cartilage and bone

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96

What is the advantage of endoskeletons?

living growth

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97

What are all the functions of the skeleton?

  • support/protection, locomotion

  • blood cells and platelets are formed in marrow

  • calcium and mineral storage

  • provides attachment sites for skeletal

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98

cells that form bone

osteoblasts and osteocytes

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99

What are osteoblasts and osteocytes composed of?

  • collagen: triple helical structure provides strength and flexibility

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100

osteoclasts

breakdown bone

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