Praxis 5691

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Behavior Modification

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Praxis 5691

128 Terms

1

Behavior Modification

uses presentation reinforcement, removal reinforcement, and techniques to increase the likelihood that children will display desired behaviors and will n ot produce undesired behaviors.

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2

Cultural Competence

refers to the skill and knowledge of ECSE workers in relating to family members from different ethnic, racial, and cultural groups.

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3

Developmental Disabilities

conditions of early onset of ( occurring well in advance of adulthood) that require a range of diverse services or interventions. The term formerly referred to four disabilities (autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and epilepsy ).

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4

Developmentally appropriate

services that are designed to be suitable for children at particular stages of development. Thus, very short individual activities are developmental appropriate for infants and toddlers, while lengthy large-group activities are not.

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5

Developmental plasticity

The belief that young children in particular can develop rapidly, changing their behavior-and indeed their lives-if services are provided early in life.

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6

Discovery learning

(Jerome Bruner) an approach in which children learn things themselves as teacher structure the environment to facilitate children's discovery.

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7

Double Jeopardy

term used by some researchers to help explain risks children face due to both biological and environmental risk factors acting together. Children from families of low socioeconomic status tend to have more illnesses and accidents and to suffer more long-lasting consequences from these than do children from families of high socioeconomic status.

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8

Domains

areas of development. Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act recognized five such domains: adaptive, cognitive, communication, physical, and social or emotional.

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9

Early Intervention

services for infants and toddlers and their families to address the special needs of very young children who have disabilities, have developmental delays, or are at risk of developmental delays. The term is used in Part C of the IDEA.

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10

Embedding

is incorporating instruction or other support that helps young children with disabilities reach IEP/IFSP goals into activities that these young children and/or their families are engaging in on their own.

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11

Experimental deprivation

occurs when young children are not allowed to confront strange, even dangerous situations-as when parents overprotect them. According to Erikson, overprotected children may enter school still unsure of themselves, having internalized parental fears.

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12

Inclusion

an approach in which children with disabilities (including those with severe disabilities) are placed in room with, and receive services side by side with, children who have no disabilities.

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13

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)

a written document outlining services for infants and toddlers and (if the families concur) their families. IFSPs note the infant's or toddler's development in five domains, services the child (and family) will receive, and similar information, as well as the service coordinator's name.

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14

Least restrictive environment

a philosophy stressing the placement of children with disabilities in appropriate settings closest (when compared with other appropriate settings) to settings used by non-disabled children. The term is used in Part B of the IDEA.

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15

Natural environment

a philosophy emphasizing services for infants, toddlers, and their families in places that are typical or otherwise "natural." Early intervention services are to be delivered in such environments, to the extent that these are "appropriate" and meet the child's needs. The home is the usual such environment. The term is used in Part C of the IDEA.

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16

Seamless system

a term referring to a set of services that has no gaps or delays between Part C early intervention and Part B services.

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17

Zone of proximal development

(Lev Vygotsky) is the edge to which children;s development has brought them- that is, what they can learn, if helped. Teachers should not attempt to introduce more cognitively challenging materials, however, until children progress to higher levels of development.

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18

actie agent

influences her own course of development

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19

passive agent

responds to forces

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20

qualitative changes

sudden periods of rapid growth and reorganization where the outcomes are significantly different from the previous stage

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21

quantitative changes

gradual adding on of new skills to previous skills

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22

Biological- maturational theory

this theory believes that genetic and physiological changes (nature) contribute to developing structures of the body. Brain development and motor capabilities, for example, occur almost automatically, without learning or instruction. Changes in abilities can be either gradual or sudden depending on the type of development being considered. To illustrate, learning to walk is the result of gradual changes in physiological capabilities and brain structure. Sudden development, on the other hand, occurs during puberty due to altered hormonal levels in the body (nature;universality;passive;quantitative and qualitative).

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23

Behaviorist Theory

Development and learning from this perspective are attributed almost exclusively to environmental influences (nurture). B.F. Skinner built on other behaviorist theorists by noting that children's (and adults, for that matter) behavior and learning can be shaped by providing rewards and punishment. He believed that there is a great deal of diversity in behavior and learning because all children experience different rewards and punishment from the adults in their lives ( nurture; diversity;passive; quantitative).

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24

Cognitive-developmental theory

this theory emphasizes how children's thinking and reasoning change, qualitatively, over time. Children actively contribute to their own cognitive development by constructing their own understanding of the world. This understanding is constructed during experiences with materials and working to resolve discrepancies between prior knowledge and new information. This process is significantly impacted by the child's biological development. At times, children will have not reached a requisite level of biological maturation and, therefore, cannot make use of information in the environment or acquire new thinking capabilities (Interaction of nature and nurture; universality and diversity; active;qualitative).

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25

sociocultural theory

this theory focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation through tools such as language and social interaction. Working with adults and more skilled peers is essential for children to acquire the ways of thinking, knowing, and behaving that make up a community's culture. From this perspective, knowledge is actively and socially constructed through interactions with other.s. However, the role of biology is not ignored. it is perceived as playing less of a direct role in cognitive development. A child's inherited traits influence the ways in which she approaches the environment and thus impacts the types of experiences she had (Interaction of nature and nurture, with more emphasis on nurture; diversity;active;quantitative).

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26

Psychosocial development

eight developmental stages by Erik Erikson, healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each state the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. Stages; Infancy (birth-18 months trust vs. mistrust; muscular-anal stage 1 1/2 to 3 yr. Autonomy vs shame and doubt; Play age 3-6 yrs initiative vs. guilt; school age 7-10 yr industry vs. inferiority; 10-17 yrs. psychosocial crisis: Identity vs. role confusion; 18-40 intimacy vs. isolation; 40-65 generality vs. stagnation; 65 and up integrity vs. despair ( interaction of nature and nurture; universality; active;qualitative).

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27

Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget - sensorimotor 0-2, preoperational 2-7, concrete operational 7 to 11 and formal operational after 11 (interaction of nature and nurture/ universality and diversity ; active; active and qualitative.

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28

Zone of proximal development

difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.

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29

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

pyramid consisting of five levels: four lower levels are grouped together as being associated with physiological needs, while the top level is termed growth needs associated with psychological needs.

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30

IFSP

the individualized family services plan (IFSP) to guide the implementation of services for infant and toddlers from birth to age three.

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31

IEP

the individualized education plan- for children over three years old.

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32

What is a natural environment?

all integrated settings: the home, a center-based classroom with non-disabled children. the neighborhood and the community.

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33

AT

products, devices, or equipment whether acquired commercially modified or customized, that are used to maintain, increase or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.

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34

Motor AT

pencil or pen with adaptive grip, adapted paper, slant board, type writer, portable word processor, computer or other.

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35

Reading AT

changes in text size, spacing, color, or background color, use of pics with text. Book adapted for page turning, talking electronic device to pronounce challenging words, scanner with talking word processor, electronic books.

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36

Learning and studying AT

print or picture schedule, low tech aids to find materials ( index tabs, color coded folders), highlighted text, software for manipulation of objects or concept development. Software for organization of ideas and studying, recorded material (books on tape, taped lectures with number coded index).

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37

Math AT

abacus or math line, calculator with or without print out, talking calculator, calculator with large keys or large LCD print out, on screen calculator, software with templates for math computation, tactile or voice output measuring devices.

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38

Activities of Daily Living (ADL's)

adaptive eating devices, drinking deices, dressing equipment.

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39

Mobility

wlaker, grab rails, manual wheelchair, powered mobility toy, powered wheelchair with joystick, head switch.

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40

Environmental control

light switch extension, environmental control device with switch to turn on electrical appliances, radio or ultrasound remote controlled appliances.

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41

Positioning and seating

nonslip surface on chair to prevent slipping, bolster, rolled towel, or blocks for feet, adapted or alternate chair, side layer, stander, custom fitted wheel chair or insert.

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42

hearing

hearing aid, classroom amplification, captioning, signaling device, screen flash for alert signals on computer.

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43

Being eligible for AT

  • the child must be eligible for special educational services.

  • there must be documented evidence that assistive technology is required within the educational setting.

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44

Levels of mental/cognitive disability

Mild 55-69

Moderate 40-54

Severe 25-39

profound 0-24

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45

Cerbral palsy

a nonprogressive neuromuscular condition affecting muscle tone, movement, reflexes, and posture. it originates with a brain injury sustained during the early stages of development and though the damage to the brain itself gets no worse.

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46

Etiology of cerbral palsy

premature birth and birth complications such as asphyxia,

anoxia caused by submersion syndrome or near-suffocation,

placental infarction, cysts, and abnormal brain development, genetic and metabolic disorders, environmental toxins such as prenatal radiation, industrial waste, and alcohol exposure.

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47

hypertonia

high muscle tone occurs when the pyramidal tract is damaged, limits joint movement, contributes to deformities of the spine, joint, dislocation, and contractures.

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48

hypotonia

low muscle tone and weakness, is often correlated with cognitive deficit, results in poor posture and hyper-mobile joints.

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49

Muro Reflex

child's arms fly back and out in a symmetrical abduction (away from the body). then the child's arms flex and return to the body in adduction (toward body) as if the child were embracing something.

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50

Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex

with head turned to one side: arm and leg on face side are extended, arm and leg on scalp side are flexed

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51

Types of Seizures

Absence Temporal lobe (psychomotor), Tonic Infantile seizure, clonic febrile seizure, Tonic Clonic, Myoclonic

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52

absence seizure

sudden interruption of ongoing activity and the assumption of a blank stare for 1-15 seconds. usually normal intelligence. Good response to therapy, though many have poor social adaption and difficulty sustaining attention.

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53

tonic seizure

rigid muscular contractions, often fixing the lims in some strained posture

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54

clonic seizures

alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles, occuring in rapid succession

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55

tonic clonic

rigid muscular contraction followed by the appearance of clonic activity.

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56

myoclonic seizure

sudden, brief, sock-like muscle contractions. usually normal intelligence, but may experience delays in social development.

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57

Temporal lobe seizure

repetitive movements such as chewing, lip smacking, rocking, may have bizarre sensory/emotional changes.

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58

atonic seizures

sudden reduction in muscle tone. in more severe cases, person may slump to the ground

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59

infantile seizure

long term prognosis very poor, mental and neurological damage affect over 80% of cases.

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60

Febrile seizure

tonic clonic seizure results from high temp. usually do not require medication and terminate when fevers are gone.

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61

Etiology of seizures

perinatal trauma, fetal distress, congenital and post-natal infections, teratogens, malformations or tumors, head injuries, chromosomal abnormalities.

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62

Treatment of seizures

drugs, surgical techniques, multidisciplinary services

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63

Hyperactivity

  • no single known cause and is considered a "syndrome"

  • characteristics: excessive motor activity, short attention span, impulsive behavior

  • *Teachers- provide for extra physical activity rather than punish lack of good sitting behavior

  • *treatment- medication, diet changes, behavior management

  • *advise: be consistent in rules and discipline, speak quietly and slowly and have a clear routine.

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64

ADHD

characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, poor delay of response.

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65

ADHD Etiology

hereditary, exposure to toxins in the environment, environmental basis.

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66

ADHD Treatement

medication therapy, parent training in the home, behavioral interventions such as token economics and behavioral contracting ans self-management procedures, combination of behavioral intervention with stimulant medication.

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67

Neural tube defects

anenecphaly, spina bifida, menigocele, myelomengocele

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68

spina bifida occulta

unnoticed condition where there is a defect in the vertebrae covering the spinal cord, but no exposure of the neural membranes or any evidence of nerve tissue in the defect. Problems: may include abnormal hair tuft over the tailbone area, dimple in the area, port wind birth mark or cyst. some may have an abnormal gait, positional deformities of the feet and problems with incontinence of urine or stool. Treatment: usually no treatment is needed.

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69

meningocle

a neural tube defect that generally appears in the lumbar area, soft tissue mass that is covered by skin and does not contain nerves of nerve roots. There is cerebral spinal fluid and meninges present in this defect. Problems: no paralysis or sensory loss and hydrocephalus rarely occurs. Treatment: surgically repaired during the first few days of life.

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70

Myelomeningocele

most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine. treatment: surgical repair of a myelomeningocele replaces the contents of the exposed sac into the spinal column and closes the defect.

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71

Brain injury

microcephaly, hydrocephalus, traumatic brain injury (TBI)

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72

microcephaly

very small head and brain; head circumference that falls at least two standard deviations below the mean on a standard growth chart for age. Generally includes cognitive impairment, cerebral palsy, seizures and cerebral atrophy. No treatment available.

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73

primary microcephaly

generally occurs during the first or second trimester of pregnancy and can result from genetic malformations, chromosomal abnormalities or exposure to toxic agents. Some of these toxic agents include radiation, chemicals such as drugs or alcohol, and infections.

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74

secondary microcephaly

develops later in pregnancy and invovles infections, birth trauma, inborn errors of metabolism and decreased oxygen supply related to many different causes.

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75

hydrocephalus

a condition where there is an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain which causes the head to increase in size beyond two standard deviations above the mean on the standard growth chart. Is a life-long disorder. Often a temporary or permanent shunt is placed between the ventricles and the abdominal space to drain away the fluid.

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76

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

head injuies account for 40% of fatalities in children ages 1 to 4, half are caused by abuse/ assault is the cause of 90% of cases of TBI.

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77

Behavioral changes in TBI

behavioral changes or alterations in degree of emotional responsivity: irritability, anger, dis-inhibition, emotional liability.

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78

Behavioral Disorders

characteristics: undesirable or inappropriate behaviors that are extreme and occur over an extended period of time. Look at three dimensions: severity, chronicity, context.

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79

Externalizing behaviors

aggression, antisocial behavior

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80

internalizing behaviors

shyness, withdrawal, eating problems

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81

What distinguishes an emotional/behavior problem from a disorder?

The duration and intensity of the behavior.

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82

Reliability

the consistency of a child's performance.

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83

Validity

how well a test truly measures a particular skill or ability and predicts future performance.

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84

Norm-referenced

Assessments that compare a student's score to that of the norm group (same age or grade level). example: a child at the 68th percentile is better at that targeted skill than 68 children out of 100.

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85

criterion-referenced assessment

compare a child's performance (or other attribute) to a benchmark or functional level of performance. Example: a child correctly identified 7 out of 10 initial sounds of words in pictures for a score of 70 percent.

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86

standardized assessments

designed, administered, and scored in a standard, or consistent, manner. They often use a multiple-choice format, though some include open-ended, short-answer questions.

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87

Informal assessment

assessments consist of results of information about a child's skills using observations, portfolios of work samples, checklists, and rating scales by teachers and or parent.

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88

examples of standardized tests

peabody picture vocabulary test, preschool language scale.

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89

informal assessments, or authentic assessments

add valuable information and should be part of the body of evidence and not the only assessment method used.

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90

List the purposes and uses of the assessment process.

to identify what children know and what they need to learn, to identify children who are not developing at the expected rate, to guide programming and instruction, to document children's learning and thereby evaluate program effectiveness, to communicate with others about your program, to identify professional development needs.

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91

what are predictive behaviors that foretell reading development?

oral language development in sentence structure, vocab, and speech intelligibility, the ability to play with and manipulate the sound structures of words, word retrieval and naming items, objects and people.

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92

what is systematic phonic instruction?

preplanned skill sequence, progresses from easier to more difficult

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93

what is explicit phonic instruction?

explains and models, gives guided practice, watches and gives corrective feedback, plans extended practice on skills as needed by individuals, applies skill to reading words, sentences, books.

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94

Phoneme

in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

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95

alliterations

identification and production of words that begin with the same sound (big, bright, blue, butterfly).

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96

cluster

two or more consonants together in a word (sp in spoon, or dr in drum).

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97

blending

combining a sequence of isolated syllables or sounds together to produce a word (hearing c-a-t and saying cat).

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98

alphabetic principle

the letter to sound relationship

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99

contnet

the meaning of a message in oral and written language

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100

decoding

reading skills that require an ability to sound out and identify unfamiliar words.

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