Bio Quizzes

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We believe that the earliest forms of life had only a single cell with no internal organelles. If organisms A is a single cell with no organelles and organism B is multi-cellular and has mitochondria, a biologist would say that organism A has ____________ traits as compared with organism B.

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1

We believe that the earliest forms of life had only a single cell with no internal organelles. If organisms A is a single cell with no organelles and organism B is multi-cellular and has mitochondria, a biologist would say that organism A has ____________ traits as compared with organism B.

Ancestral

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2

Prof. von Fischer's grandmother used to sort her buttons. She had two button cabinets: one for cloth-covered buttons, and one for solid buttons. Within each cabinet, there were drawers for buttons of each size. On a drawer, there were cups into which the buttons of similar colors were contained. This type of system for classifying buttons using a hierarchical, nested system could best be described as a:

Taxonomy

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3

In 1967, biologist Lynn Margulis published a paper that had been rejected by 15 journals. Her radical idea was that the mitochondria and chloroplast organelles found in eukaryotes could trace their evolutionary history to symbiotic bacteria living within ancestral eukaryotic cells. This evolutionary hypothesis is now well accepted, and is known as the:

Endosymbiotic Theory

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4

Does evolutionary change only add traits or does it sometimes lead to loss of traits too?

Evolutionary change can both add traits and cause them to be lost

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5

Even though fish and whales both have an aquatic body shape and habitat, they appear in separate places in the tree of life because:

Other traits reveal that they have different evolutionary histories

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6

The movement of bacterial DNA from one bacterial cell to another by a virus is known as:

Transduction

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7

Over time, the __________ on the outer surface of influenza can change, either due to sloppy replication, or due to gene exchange when multiple strains of influenza infect the same host.

Antigens

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8

This resting stage can be formed by some bacterial groups when they encounter stress. In this form, they can remain inactive for a long time, then become active again when conditions improve.

Endospore

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9

Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram developed a technique for staining bacteria that posses a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls. When this stain sticks to one of these bacteria, they are said to be Gram positive. Medical doctors are usually happy to discover that a patient is infected with a gram positive bacterium because:

The infection is more likely to respond to antibiotic treatment

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10

Emily did extra reading about Botulism. She learned that it is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin that is released from a pathogen that infects the body. This pathogen can grow in spoiled food, which is why she no longer eats tuna salad sandwiches from gas stations or airport vending machines. Botulism is caused by a:

Bacterium

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11

This disease is caused by a bacterial infection in the lungs.

Tuburculosis

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12

This group of bacteria is photosynthetic, and is commonly found in both marine and freshwater. When nutrient pollution provides abundant nitrogen and phosphorus to the water, their population can get very high, causing "blooms".

Cyanobacteria

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13

Which of the following factors limits our understanding of prokaryotic diversity?

Their small sizeThe tremendous difficulty of culturing and studying each type in the labTheir extremely high diversity

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14

The Polio virus attacks nerve cells, hepatitis attacks the liver, and HIV attacks white blood cells. How does each virus "know" which cell to attack?

The viruses key in on certain cell-surface molecules that are characteristic of each cell type

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15

Multicellularity is thought to have evolved in which clade?

Eukaryotes

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16

Mitosis is thought to have evolved in which clade?

Eukaryotes

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17

Aardvarks are not protists, but they are members of which supergroup?

Opisthokonta

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18

The Foraminifera are notable for leaving behind

geologic limestone features

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19

Which of the following organisms is part of the SAR clade?

DiatomsBrown AlgaeParamecium

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20

Land plants are in the same supergroup as the colonial organism Volvox.

True

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21

In fungi, cell division always follows mitosis

False

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22

The open pore between adjacent hyphae cells allows for

Cytoplasmic streaming

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23

The earliest fossil plants often show evidence of symbiosis with

arbuscular mycorrhizae

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24

A key reproductive structure for members of this clade is the conidia, which is the terminal hyphal cell that can break off and become a spore.

Ascomycota

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25

This fungal phylum has the #1 greatest diversity

Ascomycetes

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26

Members of this fungal phylum are often found in the guts of ruminants, where they aid digestion of cellulose.

Neocallimastigomycetes

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27

How does Trypanosomes cruzi avoid the immune system of its host?

has highly variable surface glycoprotein coat

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28

Toxoplasma is a pathogen that typically only causes significant damage to immunocompromised people. One concerning case happens in developing fetuses, who can be infected if the pregnant mother gets Toxoplasma infection from a cat litter box. Which clade of life does Toxoplasma fall into?

SAR

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29

These pathogenic fungi are notable for producing a polar tube that can pierce a host cell, allowing the pathogen to inject its infectious content into the host cell.

Microsporidia

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30

Which of the following is a benefit of being haploid?

Which of the following is a benefit of being haploid?

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31

Which of the following is a derived trait of land plants?

Walled spores in sporangiaMulticellular reproductive structures (gametangia)Alternation of generations & multicellular dependent embryos

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32

Which of the following clades of land plants does not have a vascular system?

Bryophytes

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33

In all land plants, the zygote grows up into the

sporophyte

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34

When gametes come together during ________________, their joining leads to production of a zygote.

Fertilization

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35

In what kind of environments is self-fertilization evolutionarily favored?

Stable

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36

In Angiosperms, the endosperm is derived from a sperm nucleus joining nuclei from which cells?

Polar nuclei

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37

Although angiosperms generally produce embryos during sexual reproduction, some plants can produce embryos asexually. This process is known as

apomixis

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38

A plant that can continue growing year after year is called

Perennial

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39

True or false: some angiosperms are still pollinated by wind.

True

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40

True or false: ferns produce seeds

False

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41

The bud at the end of a stem is called a(n) ______ .

Apical bud

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42

The root apical meristem is protected by the

Root cap

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43

These cells control the movement of CO2 and water vapor in and out of the leaf

Guard cells

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44

Which of the following cell types has a living, functional membrane?

Sieve tubes

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45

Which of the following is true about meristem cells?

They have large nuclei

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46

Which structure directly connects the cytoplasm of adjacent cells?

Plasmodesmata

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47

The star indicates a turgid vacuole. It is turgid because:

Potassium has been pumped into the vacuole

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48

Where is the force generated that causes water to move up the plant through the xylem?

Water re-wetting the cell wall of internal leaf cells

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49

This plant hormone allows cell elongation and organizes the body plan.

Auxin

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50

If you wanted to increase the turgor pressure of a particular target cell, which of the following actions would help achieve that?

Increasing the salt content of that target cell

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51

The main effect of aquaporins is to:

Increase the bulk flow of water

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52

What structure transports minerals from the soil all the way up to leaves?

Xylem

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53

The epidermis of young roots are not covered in cutin, as leaves are. Thus, the cell walls of root hairs become soaked in all the chemicals that are present in the soil water. There can be toxins or other undesirable chemicals in the soil water! What structure prevents these toxins from directly soaking their way into the root xylem?

Casparian strip

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54

Animals (Metazoa) are _________, but choanoflagellates are NOT.

multicellular

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55

Sponges have primarily intracellular digestion.

True

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56

Cnidarians are ___________.

radially symmetrical

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57

Cnidarians have:

two layers of true tissues

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58

Nematocytes are cells found in cnidarians that are primarily used for:

capturing prey

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59

Which of the following develops into the lining of the gut?

Endoderm

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60

Deuterostomes are characterized by [ Select ] ["deuteral cleavage", "spiral cleavage", "radial cleavage", "axial cleavage"] and the development of the blastopore into the[ Select ] ["mouth", "lining of the gut", "anus"] .

radial cleavage, anus

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61

Bivalves are mollusks. Most bivalves are:

filter-feeders

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62

Which of the classes of arthropod is the most successful and diverse?

Hexapoda

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63

Arthropods are characterized by segmentation, a chitinous exoskeleton, and:

jointed appendages

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64

The water-vascular system is found in ------- and functions primarily for ------- .

echinoderms, movement

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65

Which of the following are characteristics of lancelets (phylum Cephalochordata)? Choose all that apply.

notochord as an adulthollow nerve cordfilter feeders

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66

The main evolutionary innovation present in sharks and the other Osteichthyes that distinguishes them from hagfish and lampreys is:

Jaws!

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67

What is the main function of the lateral line system?

sensing water pressure and direction

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68

Most fishes are:

Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii)

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69

Dinoflagellates in the Symbiodinium genus form a mutualism with corals and other cnidarians in many shallow, warm-water coral reefs. What is the ecological role of Symbiodinium?

Symbiodinium is an important primary producer.

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70

A jellyfish is

Deuterostome

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71

An octopus is

neither a protostome nor a deuterostome

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72

A wolf spider is

Protostome

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73

Lophophore

Horseshoe shaped ring of tentacles for feeeding

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74

Trochophore

Free-swimming larva with a ring of cilia

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75

Where did a lung-like structure evolve?

In the ancestor of the bony fishes and the rest of the groups to the right of bony fishes on the phylogenetic tree.

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76

Some lizards supplement their oxygen supply by using cutaneous respiration. Think about the physical characteristics of lizards and other squamates. Where do you think cutaneous respiration could take place in lizards?

across the lining of the mouth

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77

Ecologically, amphibians are most often:

predators

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78

Which of the following types of respiration are common in amphibian adults?

both lungs and cutaneous respiration

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79

Which of the following statements is accurate?

Anurans (frogs and toads) - amphibians without tails.

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80

Which of the following is one of the 3 main adaptations that amniotes possess, and why is it an advantage over their closest relatives?

Dry skin reduces water loss.

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81

What kind of heart do lizards have?

a heart with a partially divided ventricle

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82

One of the most critical adaptations of the reptiles in relation to their life on land is the evolution of the

amniotic egg.

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83

The closest relative of birds is:

crocodilians

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84

Monotremes differ from the other mammals in their

laying of shelled eggs.

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85

Mammals are the only vertebrates to possess

hair

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86

All mammals have hair, mammary glands, and a placenta.

True

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87

Which of the following groups only has one currently living species, and what trait is characteristic of this group and separates it from its close relatives? Select one group name, and one trait, from the options below. (You will select 2 answers in total.)

Hominin, bipedalism

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88

It's the ninth inning, and the bases are loaded. As the pitcher winds up to throw the ball, how does each tissue in his arm contribute to this critical pitch? The __________ of his fingers grips the ball. His __________ sends instructions that trigger his __________ to contract. His __________ provides stability and transmits the force produced.

epithelial tissue; nerve tissue; muscle tissue; connective tissue

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89

Connective tissue includes adipose tissue, tendons, bone, cartilage, and blood. What do all these tissues have in common?

They all consist of few cells sparsely distributed in large amounts of extracellular material.

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90

Gelatin is made from collagen, which can be extracted from adipose tissue and other tissues. Adipose tissue contains a lot of ground substance and widely scattered protein fibers. Adipose tissue is:

loose connective tissue

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91

Which type of tissue is often derived from the endoderm?

Epithelial tissue

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92

The cells that line your digestive system, and absorb nutrients, are:

Epithelial Cells

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93

Cells that line the walls of your capillaries are:

simple squamous

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94

The glands of vertebrates are derived from __________ epithelium.

invaginated

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95

If the connection between a gland and the epithelial membrane is maintained as a duct, the gland is called a(n) __________ gland.

exocrine

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96

A scientist is trying to coax stem cells to differentiate into muscle to use as a therapy for muscular dystrophy. He looks at his Petri dish and is excited to see the cells contracting! The cells appear striated and multinucleate. What type of muscle are they?

Skeletal muscle

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97

Neuroglia, including glial cells, function to:

provide support functions to neurons

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98

In addition to the senses of vision, taste, smell, hearing, and touch, we also have a sense called proprioception. It tells us the position of our bodies, based in part on stretch receptors in muscles. Proprioceptors are part of the __________ nervous system.

peripheral

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99

Which of the following is required to detach myosin from actin?

ATP

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100

The movement of actin and myosin fibers in a muscle contraction contains all of the following steps except

myosin rolls up from one end, forming a ball.

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