Psychology Exam 2

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274 Terms

1

behaviorists

study individual behaviors, what you can see

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2

cognitive

study cognitive/mental processes

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3

innate responses

not learned, occur naturally

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reflex

automatic motor response to stimuli

  • controlled by the spinal cord

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instinct

innate behaviors triggered by environment or events

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learning

relatively permanent

gains or changes in knowledge, skills, or behaviors

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associative learning

involves connecting certain stimuli or events that occur in the environment

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Ivan Pavlov

creator of classical conditioning

dogs (“divert saliva”)

  • increased saliva in response to meat powder

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9

neutral

no associations

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unconditioned

automatic/already known

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conditioned

learned

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stimulus

causes a reaction

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response

reaction to a stimulus

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neutral stimulus (NS)

stimulus individual has not learned how to respond to

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unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

stimulus individual already knows how to respond to

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unconditioned response (UCR)

automatic response to unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

stimulus the individual learns to respond to

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conditioned response (CR)

learned response to stimulus

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19

aversive conditioning

conditioning to avoid

  • food poisoning

    • eats bad food at restaurant —> remind of restaurant = feels sick

  • association commonly formed with new foods

  • has evolutionary benefits

  • can be used to treat bad habits

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20

story of Little Albert

John B. Watson

classical conditioning

  • tried on child at 9 months old

  • paired loud noise with a white rat

  • child developed fear to white rat even when noise was not present

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conditioning is not always negative

advertising

  • positive feelings towards a brand

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acquisition

acquiring a new response (CR) to CS

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extinction

diminishing of CR when UCS no longer follows CS

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spontaneous recovery

returned CR after extinction

  • indicates CR may not be totally lost in extinction

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stimulus generalization

CR to stimuli similar to CS

  • bell —> also wind chime

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stimulus discrimination

no CR to similar CS

  • bell not equal to wind chime

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habituation

adjustment to stimuli, stop noticing/responding

  • bell keeps ringing —> ignores it

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Thorndike’s law of effect

behaviors with good consequences are repeated

behaviors with bad consequences are less likely to be repeated

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operant conditioning

associate behavior and response

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30

reinforcement

always increases behavior

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punishment

always reduces behavior

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32

positive

adding something

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negative

removing or subtracting something

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positive reinforcement

adding something good to increase behavior

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negative reinforcement

removing something bad to increase behavior

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36

positive punishment

adding something bad to decrease behavior

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negative punishment

removing something good to decrease behavior

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continuous reinforcement

reinforcer occurs every time behavior happens

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partial reinforcment

reinforcer occurs, but not every time behavior happens

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interval

time

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ratio

number of behaviors

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fixed

constant

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variable

varying or changing

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fixed interval

reinforcer always occurs after the same amount of time

  • quickest to disappear

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variable interval

reinforcer occurs after changing period of time

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fixed ratio

reinforcer always occurs after the same number of behaviors

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variable ratio

reinforcer occurs after changing number of behaviors

  • takes the longest to disappear

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48

extinction

behavior disappears sometime after reinforcement stops

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primary reinforcers

things that have inherent value

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50

secondary reinforcers

things we’ve assigned value to

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token economies

use secondary reinforcers to modify behaviors

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52

Albert Bandura

focused on children, adolescence, and aggression

observational learning + operant conditioning

bobo doll experiment

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53

bobo doll experiment

children saw adult beat up bobo doll

adult either reinforced or punished

if reinforced: child copied

if punished: child does not copy

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54

prosocial models

show socially appropriate behaviors

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antisocial models

show antisocial (harmful to others), socially inappropriate behaviors

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steps in observational learning

  1. attention

  • watch others complete behavior

  1. retention

  • remembering the behavior

  1. reproduction

  • repeating the behavior

  1. motivation

  • actual or expected outcome of the behavior

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57

classical conditioning

learning to react to stimuli based on other stimuli experienced at the same time

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operant conditioning

repeat behaviors that are reinforced (vice versa)

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observational learning

learn from model and outcomes for that model

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cognition

thinking

  • perception, knowledge, problem-solving, judgment, memory, and language

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communication system

using words and systemic rules

goal: transmit information between people

helps social relationships, big part of thinking, verbal communication (not the only way we communicate)

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nonverbal communication

communicating feelings/intentions without words

  • body movements and facial expressions

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63

language helps us…

  • learn about new phenomena

  • make connections

  • make and execute plans

  • exchange ideas/feelings

  • share information

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language development

begins before birth

  • newborns distinguish mother’s voice

until age 1 —> can distinguish any sound in the world

after age 1 —> languages they hear only

babbling

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1st word

12-18 months

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2 word statements

18-24 months

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more complex sentences

2-3 years

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full sentences/conversation

3-5 years

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Noam Chomsky

language is biological, innate

humans are made for language

development looks the same cross-culturally

critical period of language acquisition

  • as you age, learning a language gets harder

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70

linguistic determinism

language shapes how we think about things

  • hard to thing about things we do not have a language for

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concepts

mental categories of things, observed and organized

  • can be complex, abstract, concrete, natural, artificial

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prototypes

best, most average example of a concept

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natural concept

created naturally through your direct/indirect experiences

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artificial concept

defined by a specific set of characteristics that they always exhibit

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schemas

a mental construct of a cluster of related concepts

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role schema

expectation of how people in a certain role/position will behave

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event schema/script

a set of behaviors you do in a specific situation

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problem-solving strategies

way with coming up with a solution to a problem

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insight

when one suddenly understands the solution to a problem

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80

trial-and-error

trying random things until you find a solution

  • time consuming, but common

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algorithm

a step-by-step formula for solving a problem

  • common in computer science

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heuristics

problem-solving framework

  • “rule of thumb”

  • quick, but not necessarily effective

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uses of heuristics

  • overwhelmed by information

  • time constraints

  • not worried about problem

  • not enough information

    • when a heuristic is readily available for the problem

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mental set

using a previously used problem-solving solution, despite the fact it is failing

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functional fixedness

inability to see that an object can have a function other than its typical use

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fixation

inability to create a new interpretation of a problem

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anchoring bias

rely on original information when making a decision

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confirmation bias

focuses on information that confirms our existing beliefs

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hindsight bias

belief we could have predicted what just happened

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representative bias

making a decision based on a stereotype

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91

availability heuristic

make a decision based on most available, not the most accurate information

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92

intelligence quotient (IQ)

measure of how intelligent you are

average score is 100

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93

crystalized intelligence

acquired knowledge and ability to retrieve it

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fluid intelligence

ability to see complex relationships and solve problems

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analytical intelligence

academic problem solving and computation

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practical intelligence

street smarts and common sense

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creative intelligence

imaginative and innovative problem solving

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Cattel

  • crystalized intelligence

  • fluid intelligence

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99

Robert Sternberg

  • analytical intelligence

  • practical intelligence

  • creative intelligence

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100

Howard Gardener

  • linguistic intelligence

  • logical-mathematical intelligence

  • musical intelligence

  • bodily kinesthetic intelligence

  • spatial intelligence

  • naturalistic intelligence

  • emotional intelligence

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