A&P 2 EXAM 1 CH 16 & 17

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Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.

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183 Terms

1

Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.

Ovaries

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2

Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.

Pituitary

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3

Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.

Testes

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4

Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

Adrenal Glands

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5

Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ.

Hypothalamus

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6

An autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland.

Graves' disease

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7

Hyposecretion of growth hormone.

Pituitary dwarfism

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8

Hyposecretion of the pancreas.

Diabetes mellitus

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9

Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex.

Addison's disease

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10

Hypersecretion of growth hormone.

Acromegaly

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11

Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults.

Myxedema

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12

Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex.

Cushing's disease

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13

Hyposecretion of the the thyroid in infants.

Cretinism

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14

The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.

Pituitary

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15

Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body.

Pancreas

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16

Produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue.

Parathyroid

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17

Produces the body's major metabolic hormones.

Thyroid

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18

Produces glucocorticoids.

Zona fasciculata

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19

Produces epinephrine.

Adrenal medulla

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20

Produces aldosterone.

Zona glomerutosa

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21

Excess hormone levels result in Cushing's syndrome.

Zona fasciculata

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22

Hormones mimic sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters.

Adrenal medulla

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23

Produces androgens.

Zona reticularis

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24
<p>Monocyte.</p>

Monocyte.

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25
<p>Lymphocyte.</p>

Lymphocyte.

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26
<p>Eosinophil.</p>

Eosinophil.

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27
<p>Neutrophil.</p>

Neutrophil.

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28

Most common white blood cell found in whole blood.

Neutrophil

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29

Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies.

Lymphocyte

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30

Kills parasitic worms.

Eosinophil

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31

Becomes a macrophage.

Monocyte

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32

Main bacteria killer during acute infections.

Neutrophil

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33

Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.

Eosinophil

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34

Nucleus is multilobed; functions as a phagocyte; contains fine indistinct granules.

Neutrophil

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35

Transports CO2 and oxygen.

Erythrocyte

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36

Contains a U- or and S- shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin.

Basophil

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37

Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections.

Monocyte

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38

The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.

Albumin

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39

Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.

Fibrinogen

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40

Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.

Fibrinogen

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41

Makes up most of plasma protein.

Albumin

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42

Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response.

Gamma globulins

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43

Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins.

Alpha and beta globulins

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44

Produced by platelets.

Prostaglandin derivatives such as Thromboxane A2

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45

A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane.

Spectrin

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46

Hormone that stimulates productions of RBCs.

Erythropoietin

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47

Stimulates WBC production.

Interleukins and CSFs

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48

Natural anticoagulant found in basophils.

Heparin

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49

Cancerous condition involving white blood cells.

Leukemia

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50

Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.

Anemia

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51

Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity.

Polycythemia

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52

Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream.

Embolism

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53

The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. (T/F)

True

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54

The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin. (T/F)

False- The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is glucagon.

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55

Addison's disease is due to a deficient output of glucocorticoids only. (T/F)

False- Addison's disease is due to a deficient output of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (cortisol and aldosterone).

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56

Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system. (T/F)

True

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57

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones. (T/F)

True

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58

LH (luteinizing hormone) is also referred to as a gonadotropin. (T/F)

True

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59

Chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deterioration. (T/F)

True

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60

Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions. (T/F)

True

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61

Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while follicles of the parathyroid produce calcitonin. (T/F)

False- Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce calcitonin.

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62

Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production. (T/F)

True

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63

The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis. (T/F)

True

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64

The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin. (T/F)

True

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65

Most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin. (T/F)

False- Most type 1 diabetics do not produce insulin.

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66

Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least abundant. (T/F)

False- Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals and the most abundant.

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67

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium. (T/F)

True

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68

Although glucagon is a small polypeptide, it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects. (T/F)

True

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69

The thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individual. (T/F)

True

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70

Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters. (T/F)

True

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71

All of the following hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary: ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), and LH (luteinizing hormone). (T/F)

True

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72

Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine. (T/F)

True

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73

The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid. (T/F)

False- The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the thyroid.

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74

Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones. (T/F)

False- Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine tissues to produce hormones.

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75

Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune response when an individual is suffering from severe stress. (T/F)

False- Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually do not enhance the immune response when an individual is suffering from severe stress.

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76

Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system. (T/F)

False- Direct gene activation does not involve a second-messenger system.

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77

All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA. (T/F)

True

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78

All anterior pituitary hormone except GH (growth hormone) affect their target cells via a cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) second messenger. (T/F)

True

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79

The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is in the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones. (T/F)

False- The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is in the bone marrow in flat bones.

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80

The immediate response to blood vessel injury is clotting. (T/F)

False- The immediate response to blood vessel injury is vascular spasm.

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81

The process of fibrinolysis disposes of bacteria when healing has occurred. (T/F)

False- The process of fibrinolysis disposes of unneeded blood clots when healing has finished.

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82

The RBC "graveyard" is the liver. (T/F)

False- The RBC "graveyard" is the spleen.

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83

Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss. (T/F)

True

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84

White blood cells are produced through the action of colony-stimulating factors (CSF). (T/F)

True

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85

Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin. (T/F)

False- Hemoglobin is made up of the red pigment heme and the protein globin.

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86

Each heme contains an atom of iron and can transport one molecule of oxygen. (T/F)

True

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87

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen. (T/F)

False- Each hemoglobin molecule can transport four molecules of oxygen.

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88

Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries. (T/F)

False- Diapedesis is the process by which white blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

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89

Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas. (T/F)

True

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90

A condition of leukocytosis indicates over 11,000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter in the blood. (T/F)

True

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91

Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs. (T/F)

False- Eosinophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs.

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92

Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes. (T/F)

True

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93

A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or type O blood. (T/F)

True

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94

Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by amoeboid motion. (T/F)

False- Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by going with the flow of the blood.

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95

Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types. (T/F)

True

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96

All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes. (T/F)

True

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97

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of _____.

A) aldosteron

B) insulin

C) secretin

D) cortisol

D) cortisol

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98

Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the _____.

A) adrenal medulla

B) pancreas

C) thyroid gland

D) thymus gland

D) thymus gland

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99

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular _____.

A) ions

B) deactivators

C) nucleotides

D) second messengers

D) second messengers

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100

Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

A) enzyme

B) humoral

C) neural

D) hormonal

A) enzyme

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