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105 Terms

1

voluntary migration

Migration that is done willingly

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2

international migration

When moves are made across national borders

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3

guest worker

a person with temporary permission to work in another country

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4

transitional migration

When move back and forth between their home countries and those to which they have migrated

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5

internal migration or interregional migration

When people move within the borders of a country

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6

Great Migration

The twentieth-century movement of 6 million African Americans from the rural southern states to cities of the midwestern and northeastern states

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7

rural-to-urban migration

When people move from the countryside to cities

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8

residential mobility

Moves that occur within a metropolitan area

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9

step (or stepwise) migration

Migration carried out in a series of stages, usually from nearby to bigger and more distant places

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10

chain migration

The process by which some people's migration to a new place leads their family members, friends, and other to move to the same place

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11

return migration

Migrants going back, or returning, to their previous place of residence or origin

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12

mobility transition model

Geographer Wilbur Zelinsky's conclusion that there are regularities in migration as an essential component of a country's modernization process

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13

circulation

Short-term and cyclical movement that occur repeatedly on a regular basis

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14

forced migration

Migration caused by forces out of one's control, such as disasters, social conflicts, or developmental projects

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15

refugees

People who leave their country because of persecution based on race, ethnicity, religion, nationality, or political opinion

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16

internally displaced person (IDP)

Someone who remains within his or her country's border despite being persecuted by their home country

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17

ethnic cleansing

The forced removal of one ethnic group by another ethnic group to create an ethnically consistent territory

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18

repatriated

When refugees or displaced persons return to their home country

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19

aging population

A population of a country or place that ages as the number or proportion of its elderly people increases

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20

median age

the age that divides a population into two halves so that one half is younger than this age and the other half older

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21

antinatalist policies

Designed to curtail population growth by reducing fertility rates

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22

pronatalist policies

Designed to boost fertility rates and ultimately population growth

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23

demographic transition model (DTM)

conceptualizes how crude birth rate (CBR) and crude death rate (CDR) as well as the resulting rate of natural increase (RNI) change over time as countries go through industrialization and urbanization

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24

epidemiology

A branch of medicine that studies the distribution, determinants, and control of diseases and other health conditions, such as tobacco use and sedentary lifestyle

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25

epidemiological transition theory

Seeks to explain how changes in health services and living standards affect patterns of disease

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26

degenerative diseases

A disease that causes deterioration over time, such as cancer, heart disease, and stroke

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27

population composition

The makeup of the population by age and sex as well as by ethnic, racial, income, and educational background

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28

age structure

Refers to the breakdown of a population into different age groups or cohorts

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29

dependency ratio

The number of dependents in a population, that each 100 working-age people (ages 15 to 64 years) must support

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30

youth dependency ratio

The number of young dependents in a population (usually people younger than 15 years of age) that every 100 working-age people must support

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31

elderly dependency ratio

The number of elderly dependents in a population (usually people older than 64 years of age) that every 100 working-age people must support

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32

generations

Groups of people who were born around the same time and share some common traits due to the cultural and societal influences they shared as they grew up

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33

Baby Boomers

People born from 1946 to 1964 during the post-World War II uptick in birth rate

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34

Generation X

People born between 1965 and 1980 and are now in their prime working years

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35

Generation Y

People who were born between 1981 and 2000 often referred to as millennials

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36

Generation Z

People born after the turn of the twenty-first century

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37

sex ratio

The ratio of the number of men to the number of women in a population

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38

Androcentrism

A phenomenon in which a culture demonstrates a marked preference for males

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39

infanticide

the practice of killing infants

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40

population pyramid

A very useful graphic device for comparing age and sex structure

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41

demographic equation

the method for calculating total population of a country or place based on natural increase and migration over a period of time (usually a year)

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42

crude birth rate (CBR)

The average number of births per 1000 people; the traditional way of measuring birth rates

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43

low birth rate

A crude birth rate between 10 and 20 births per 1000 people

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44

transitional birth rate

A crude birth rate between 20 and 30 per 1000 people

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45

high birth rate

A crude birth rate of more than 30 per 1000 people

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46

total fertility rate (TFR)

The average number of children born per woman during her reproductive lifetime, considered to be 15 to 49 years of age

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47

replacement level fertility

The average number of children needed to replace both parents and stabilize population over time

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48

gender roles

Culturally specific notions of what it means to be a man or women

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49

crude death rate (CDR) or mortality rate

The number of deaths per year per 1000 people

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50

infant mortality rate (IMR)

A measure of how many infants die within the first year of their life per 1000 live births

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51

child mortality

Deaths of children under five years of age

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52

rate of natural increase (RNI)

The difference between the number of births and deaths in a given year, when expressed as a percentage of total population

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53

zero population growth (ZPG)

When a country has the same number of births and deaths in a given year, its RNI is zero

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54

doubling time

The number of years it takes for a population to double in size

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55

rule of 70

A tool for calculating the doubling time of a population by dividing 70 by a country's rate of natural increase (RNI)

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56

Malthusian

A term derived from the name Thomas Robert Malthus, an English economist and cleric, to mean either "of or relating to Malthus's theory" or "a follower of Malthus"

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57

overpopulation

Occurs when the human population exceeds the food supply

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58

neo-Malthusians

People who today subscribe to the Malthusian view of population

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59

cornucopians or anti-Malthusians

People who disagree with the Malthusian view of population and resources

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60

Boserup effect

Increase in food production resulting from the use of new farming methods

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61

women's status

The degree of equality between men and women with respect to access to and control over both physical and social resources in the family, community, or society at large

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62

women's empowerment

The increased autonomy of women to make choices and shape their lives

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63

spatial mobility

All forms of geographical movement, including people's everyday commuting and travels

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64

social (upward) mobility

Mobility that implies a change in social hierarchy

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65

migration

A long-term or permanent relocation of individuals, families, or entire communities from one place to another

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66

migrant or mover

A person who migrates or moves

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67

non-migrants or stayers

People who do not move

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68

origin

A person's location before migration

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69

destination

The place where the migrant is going

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70

emigration or out-migration

The act of a migrant leaving their place (country) of origin

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71

emigrants or out-migrants

people who leave their country of origin

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72

immigration or in-migration

The act of a migrant arriving at their destination country

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73

immigrants or in-migrants

People who arrive at their destination country

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74

migration stream

The flow of all migrants from an origin to a destination

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75

counterstream

The flow of all migrants in the direction opposite a particular migration stream, from its destination back to the origin

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76

net migration

the difference between the number of in-migrants and out-migrants

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77

net migration rate (NMR)

A gauge of the impact of migration on population change, determined by dividing a country's net migration by its total population, then multiplying by 1000

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78

migration age profile

The relatively stable relationship between the odds of migration and age across different countries

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79

brain drain

A phenomenon where a country or place loses young, more educated, and skilled people through migration

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80

brain gain

A phenomenon where a country or a place gains young, more educated, and skilled people through migration

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81

push-pull theory of migration

Theory asserting that two contrasting sets of factors are at work in migration decisions

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82

push factors

Factors that cause people to be dissatisfied with their present locales and want to move somewhere else

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83

pull factors

The attributes of other places that make them appealing to potential migrants

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84

intervening obstacles

The complications that potential migrants will need to overcome to reach their destination

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85

social network

People's friends and relatives

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86

intervening opportunity

A nearby attractive locale where migrants may decide to settle instead of going to the intended destination farther away

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87

diaspora

Involuntary mass dispersions of a population from its home territory

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88

population distribution

The pattern in which humans are spread out on Earth's surface

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89

Eurasia

A massive piece of land on Earth that consists of Europe, with just under 10 percent of the human population, and Asia which accounts for almost 60 percent of humanity

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90

ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface with permanent human settlement.

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91

population clusters

heavily populated areas that illustrate the unevenness in global population distribution; geographers have identified four population clusters on Earth: South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe

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92

metacity

A city with more than 20 million residents

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93

megacity

A city with more than 10 million residents

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94

developed (or industrialized) country

a country with an advanced economy and a high standard of living

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95

developing (or industrializing) countries

Countries that are of relatively low income or economically poorer than developed countries

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96

Snow Belt

States located in the northern and midwestern parts of the country

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97

Sunbelt

States in coastal areas and the South and Southwest

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98

mean center of population

The balancing point given the distribution of population

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99

population density

The average number of people per unit of land

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100

arithmetic (crude) density

The average number of people per unit of land area (usually per square mile or kilometer)

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