Mairne Bio Final Exam

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Examples of marine reptiles

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1

Examples of marine reptiles

Sea turtles, marine iguanas, marine crocodiles, sea snakes

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2

Give examples of marine tetrapods.

Sea turtles, seals, whales, and penguins.

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3

How are reefs formed?

Through the accumulation and growth of coral polyps, sediment, minerals, or human-made materials in the marine environment.

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4

How do birds reproduce?

Through sexual reproduction, where males transfer sperm to females to fertilize eggs internally.

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5

How do cnidarians reproduce?

In different ways depending on the species and their life cycle, including sexual and asexual reproduction.

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6

How do crustaceans reproduce?

Decapods wait for molting before males can pass sperm packets to females.

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7

How do mammals reproduce?

Sexual reproduction with internal fertilization, development is followed by live birth.

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8

How do marine mammals tolerate elevated levels of dissolved nitrogen?

Specialized blood vessels and specialized diving behaviors.

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9

How do reptiles reproduce?

Sexually, with internal fertilization.

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10

How do sea snakes reproduce?

Some species lay sticky eggs. Others give "live birth."

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11

How do sponges reproduce?

Both sexually and asexually.

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12

How does sexual reproduction occur in sponges?

Release of sperm and eggs into the water for external fertilization.

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13

How does the medusa stage of scyphozoans reproduce?

By releasing eggs and sperm into the water.

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14

Name some examples of reptiles.

Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodilians.

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15

What abiotic factors influence polar marine ecosystems?

Temperature, salinity, ice cover, sunlight availability, nutrient levels, ocean currents.

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16

What adaptations do marine iguanas have for feeding?

Sharp claws and specialized teeth and jaws.

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17

What adaptations do marine iguanas have for swimming?

Flattened tails.

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18

What are abiotic factors of coral reefs?

Tropical and subtropical waters, low nutrients, shallow and clear

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19

What are albatrosses?

Large seabirds known for their flying abilities and complex courtship rituals.

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20

What are animals?

Multicellular organisms that move and obtain energy by consuming other organisms.

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21

What are arthropods?

Diverse group of invertebrate animals with jointed limbs, segmented bodies, and exoskeletons.

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22

What are baleen whales?

Group of large marine mammals that filter small organisms from water for feeding.

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23

What are birds?

Warm-blooded vertebrates with feathers, beaks, and the ability to fly.

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24

What are cetaceans?

Marine mammals that include whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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25

What are cnidarians?

A phylum of animals including jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones.

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26

What are cnidocytes?

Specialized stinging cells in cnidarians that contain nematocysts.

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27

What are coral reefs?

Underwater ecosystems formed by coral polyps.

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28

What are decapods?

A group of crustaceans with 10 legs.

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29

What are down feathers?

A soft, fluffy feather for insulation.

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30

What are dugongs?

Large marine mammals related to manatees.

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31

What are eared seals?

Seals with external ear flaps, such as sea lions and fur seals.

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32

What are flight feathers?

Specialized feathers enabling birds to fly

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33

What are life stages in crustaceans?

Protozoea, Zoea, and Nauplius

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34

What are marine mammals?

Mammals adapted to live in aquatic environments

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35

What are marine reptiles?

Reptiles adapted to live in marine environments

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36

What are marine tetrapods?

Vertebrate animals adapted to marine environments

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37

What are pelicans?

Large water birds with long beaks and throat pouches used for catching fish.

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38

What are penguins?

Flightless birds adapted for life in the water, found primarily in the Southern Hemisphere.

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39

What are pinnipeds?

A group of marine mammals including seals, sea lions, and walruses.

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40

What are polar bears?

Large marine mammals and apex predators of the Arctic.

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41

What are polar ecosystems?

Ecosystems near Earth's poles with extreme cold temperatures and specialized species.

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42

What are Porifera?

Simple multicellular filter-feeding organisms that live in aquatic environments.

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43

What are reptile eggs?

Eggs with a leathery or calcified shell.

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44

What are reptiles?

Cold-blooded vertebrate animals with scaly skin.

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45

What are salt glands?

Specialized organs that excrete excess salt from marine animals.

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46

What are scyphozoans?

A class of cnidarians that includes jellyfish.

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47

What are sea otters?

Marine mammals found in northern Pacific Ocean

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48

What are sea snakes?

Venomous reptiles adapted to aquatic life in Indian and Pacific Oceans

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49

What are seabird courtship rituals?

Behaviors and displays to attract a mate. Demonstrate health and compatibility.

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50

What are sirenians?

Fully aquatic mammals that include manatees and dugongs.

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51

What are some adaptations of marine mammals to pressure?

Flexible rib cages, oxygen storage in musc, specialized lungs and airways

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52

What are some adaptations of marine mammals to temperature?

Blubber/fat insulation, dense fur coat, large flippers/surface area modifications

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53

What are some adaptations of reptiles?

Scales, claws, specialized respiratory systems.

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54

What are some adaptations of sea snakes for living in marine environments?

Streamlined body, paddle-like tail, nostrils on top of head, gas exchange through skin, venomous bites, specialized jaws

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55

What are some adaptations of sea turtles?

Streamlined body, flippers, shell, salt glands, navigation ability

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56

What are some adaptations of seabirds?

Waterproof plumage, webbed feet, salt glands, and a diet of fish and marine invertebrates.

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57

What are some common groups of seabirds?

Albatrosses, petrels, gulls, auks, penguins, and terns.

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58

What are some examples of biotic factors in coral reefs?

Corals, fish, invertebrates, algae, microorganisms.

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59

What are some examples of biotic factors in polar seas?

Phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, marine mammals, birds.

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60

What are some examples of crustaceans?

Crabs, lobsters, shrimp, barnacles, crayfish.

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61

What are spicules?

Small, needle-like structures in sponges.

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62

What are sponges?

Multicellular filter feeders without true tissues or organs.

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63

What are tetrapods?

Vertebrate animals with four limbs or descended from them

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64

What are the adaptations of otariids for swimming?

Highly adapted for swimming and have a more flexible neck compared to true seals.

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65

What are the adaptations of penguins for life in cold environments?

Streamlined bodies, flipper-like wings for swimming, and dense feathers that provide insulation.

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66

What are the characteristics of walruses?

Large, tusked pinnipeds adapted to live in both water and on land.

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67

What are the different cell types in sponges?

Choanocytes, pinacocytes, archaeocytes, and sclerocytes.

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68

What are the ecological benefits of coral reefs?

High biodiversity, nursery areas, nutrient cycling, erosion protection.

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69

What are the economic benefits of coral reefs?

Tourism and fisheries resources

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70

What are the environmental benefits of coral reefs?

Water quality improvement and carbon cycling

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71

What are toothed whales?

Marine mammals with teeth and are capable of echolocation.

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72

What are tubenoses?

Seabirds with tubular nostrils on their bills.

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73

What are vertebrates?

Animals with a backbone or spinal column.

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74

What are webbed feet?

Specialized feet or toes of certain aquatic animals, including birds like ducks and swans, that are connected by a membrane of skin called a web.

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75

What are Zooxanthellae?

Symbiotic photosynthetic algae in coral tissues.

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76

What do pelicans use their beaks and throat pouches for?

For catching fish.

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77

What do penguins feed on?

Fish and other marine organisms.

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78

What do sea turtles primarily feed on?

Seagrasses, algae, jellyfish

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79

What do Zooxanthellae provide to host organisms?

Energy through photosynthesis.

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80

What group do Zooxanthellae belong to?

Dinoflagellate group.

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81

What is a coral polyp?

A small, individual organism that forms coral reefs.

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82

What is a crustacean exoskeleton?

An external skeleton made of chitin and calcium carbonate.

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83

What is a falcon?

A bird of prey known for hunting prowess. Marine falcons include Bald Eagles and Osprey.

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84

What is a marine iguana?

Only iguana species that forages and swims in the ocean.

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85

What is a polyp?

A cylindrical, sessile body form found in cnidarians.

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86

What is a reef?

A submerged or partially submerged structure composed of various living and non-living components.

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87

What is asexual reproduction in cnidarians?

Reproduction through budding or division of the polyp to create genetically identical clones.

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88

What is asexual reproduction in sponges?

Budding.

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89

What is bird molting?

The process by which birds replace old feathers with new ones.

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90

What is chordata?

A phylum of animals that includes vertebrates.

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91

What is convergent evolution?

Independent evolution of similar traits in different species. Common in secondary marine species.

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92

What is coral bleaching?

Expulsion of symbiotic algae from corals due to stress.

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93

What is crustacean molting?

Periodic shedding of exoskeleton for growth.

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94

What is decompression sickness?

The bends! Caused by a decrease in pressure, leading to expansion of nitrogen bubbles in the bloodstream. Occurs during the ascent.

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95

What is dissolved nitrogen?

Nitrogen in body tissues while diving.

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96

What is echolocation?

A sonar system used by some animals. In cetaceans, it involves the melon organ and lower jaw.

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97

What is endosymbiosis?

Close interaction between two species where one lives within the cells of another.

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98

What is filter feeding?

Feeding strategy involving filtering food particles from water

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99

What is Odobenidae?

A family of marine mammals that includes the walrus.

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100

What is Otariidae?

A family of marine mammals that includes eared seals such as sea lions and fur seals.

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