Combined chapter 1-4

studied byStudied by 3 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Individual Differences

1 / 164

Tags and Description

Business

165 Terms

1

Individual Differences

refers to the ways in which people are similar and dissimilar in personal characteristics

New cards
2

Surface- Level Diversity

the mix of individual differences in organizations creates workforce diversity

New cards
3

Deep- Level Diversity

personalities, values, and attitudes- are more psychologically innate and less immediately visible

New cards
4

Self- Concept

the view individuals have of that it's important to have a strong sense of self

New cards
5

Self- Awareness

being aware of our own behaviors, preferences, styles, biases, personalities, and so on

New cards
6

Awareness of Others

being aware of these same things in others

New cards
7

Self- Esteem

a belief about one's own worth based on an overall self-evaluation

New cards
8

Self- Efficacy

individual's belief in his or her ability

New cards
9

Prejudice

form of negative, irrational, and superior options and attitudes toward persons who are different from ourselves

New cards
10

Discrimination

occurs when minority members are unfairly treated and denied the full benefits of organizational membership

New cards
11

Glass Ceiling Effect

an invisible barrier or "ceiling" that prevents women and minorities from rising above a certain level of organizational responsibility

New cards
12

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

protects individuals against employment discrimination on the basis of race and color, as well as national origin, sex, and religion

New cards
13

Leaking Pipeline

a phrase coined to describe how women have not reached the highest levels of organizations

New cards
14

Leadership Double Bind

describes how women are seen as weak in leadership if they conform to the feminine stereotype and also weak if they go against it

New cards
15

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

act addresses rights of individuals with disabilities in employment and public accommodations

New cards
16

Universal Design

the practice of designing products, buildings, public spaces, and programs to be usable by the greatest number of people

New cards
17

Diversity Issues in the Workplace:

-race and ethnicity

-gender

-sexual orientation

-age

-ability

New cards
18

Social Identity Theory

perception of self and others based on the social groups that one belongs to

New cards
19

In- Group Membership

identifies as being a member (belonging)

New cards
20

Out- Group Membership

social group with which an individual does not identify (feel excluded)

New cards
21

Personality

characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts to and interacts with others

New cards
22

Big Five Personality Traits:

-extraversion: outgoing, sociable, assertive

-agreeableness: good-natured, cooperative, trusting

-conscientiousness: responsible, dependable, careful

-emotional stability: relaxed, secured, unworried

-openness to experience: don't mind uncertainty

New cards
23

Social Traits

surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings

New cards
24

Problem- Solving Style

reflects the way someones goes about gathering and evaluating information in solving problems and making decisions

New cards
25

Personal Conception Traits

represent various ways people think about their social and physical setting, their major beliefs, and personal orientations toward a range of issues

New cards
26

Locus of Control

the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces

New cards
27

Proactive Personality

the disposition that identifies whether or not individuals act to influence their environments

New cards
28

Authoritarianism

tends to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority (strict to rules)

New cards
29

Dogmatism

sees the world as a threatening place

New cards
30

Machiavellianism

the practice of viewing and manipulating others purely for personal gain

New cards
31

Self- Monitoring

reflects a person's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational (environmental) factors

New cards
32

Emotional Adjustment Traits

indicate how one handles emotional distress or displays unacceptable acts, such as impatience, irritability, or aggression

New cards
33

Type A Orientation

characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and perfectionism

New cards
34

Type B Orientation

characterized as more easygoing and less competitive in relation to daily events

New cards
35

Stress

state of internal tension experienced by individuals who perceive themselves as facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities

New cards
36

Work Stressors:

-task demands

-role ambiguities

-role conflicts

-ethical dilemmas

-interpersonal problems

-career developments

-physical setting

New cards
37

Eustress

constructive stress that results in positive outcomes for the individual

New cards
38

Distress

destructive stress that is dysfunctional for the individual

New cards
39

Job Burnout

shows itself as loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job because of stressful working conditions

New cards
40

Coping

a response or reaction to distress that has occurred or is threatened

New cards
41

Problem- Focused Coping

in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directly reducing the stress

New cards
42

Emotion- Focused Coping

try to regulate the emotions drawn forth by stress

New cards
43

Personal Wellness

invoices the pursuit of one's job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program

New cards
44

Values

broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes

New cards
45

Terminal Values

reflect a person's preferences concerning the "ends" to be achieved

New cards
46

Instrumental Values

reflect a person's beliefs about the "means" to achieve desired ends

New cards
47

Power Distance

willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among its members

New cards
48

Uncertainty Avoidance

cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity

New cards
49

Individualism/Collectivism

tendency of a culture to emphasize either individual or group interests

New cards
50

Masculinity/Femininity

tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits

New cards
51

Long-term/Short-term Orientation

tendency of a culture to emphasize values associated with the future, such as thrift and persistence, or values that focus largely on the present

New cards
52

Ecological Fallacy

acting with the mistaken assumption that a generalized cultural value applies equally to all members of the culture

New cards
53

Stigma

a phenomenon whereby an individual is rejected as a result of an attribute that is deeply discredited by his or her society

New cards
54

Perception

process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information from the world around them

New cards
55

Characteristics of the Perceiver

a person's past experiences, needs or motives, personality, values, and attitudes may all influence the perceptual process

New cards
56

Characteristics of the Setting

the physical, social, and organizational context can influence the perception process

New cards
57

Characteristics of the Perceived

object, or event are also important in the perception process

New cards
58

Selective Screening

consciously deciding what information to pay attention to and what to ignore

New cards
59

Controlled Processing

carefully collecting information about a system, process, person, or group of people in order to make necessary decisions

New cards
60

Schemas

cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge developed through experience about a concept or stimulus

New cards
61

Script Schema

knowledge framework that describes the appropriate sequence of events in a given situation

New cards
62

Person Schema

sort people into categories- types or groups, in terms of similar perceived features

New cards
63

Prototypes

pre-set bundles of features expected to be characteristics of people in certain categories of roles

New cards
64

Impression Management

the systematic attempt to behave in ways that will create and maintain desired impressions in the eyes of others

New cards
65

Stereotype

occurs when we identify someone with a group or category, and then use the attributes perceived to be associated with the group or category to describe the individual

-ability stereotypes

-age stereotypes

New cards
66

Halo Effect

occurs when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of that individual or situation

New cards
67

Selective Perception

the tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one's needs, values, or attitudes

New cards
68

Projection

the assignment of one's personal attributes to other individuals

New cards
69

Contrast Effect

the meaning or interpretation of something is arrived at by contrasting it with a recently occurring event or situation

New cards
70

Self- Fulfilling Prophecy

the tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which you expected to find in the first place (perception, attribution, and social learning)

New cards
71

Attribution

the process of developing explanations or assigning perceived causes for events

New cards
72

Attribution Theory

understand how people perceive the causes of events, asses responsibility for outcomes, and evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved (internally or externally)

New cards
73

Three Factors of Attribution Theory:

1. distinctiveness- considers how consistent a person's behavior is across different situations

2. consensus- takes into account how likely all those facing a similar situation are to respond in the same way

3. consistency- concerns whether an individual responds the same way across time

New cards
74

Fundamental Attribution Error

the tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors when evaluating someone else's behavior

New cards
75

Self- Serving Bias

the tendency to deny personal responsibility for performance problems but to accept personal responsibility for performance success

New cards
76

Social Learning Theory

describes how learning take place through the reciprocal interactions among people, behavior, and environment

New cards
77

Reinforcement

the administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior

New cards
78

Classic Conditioning

form of learning through association that involves the manipulation of stimuli to influence behavior

New cards
79

Operant Conditioning

process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences

New cards
80

Law of Effect

behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be related, whereas behavior that results in unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated

New cards
81

Extrinsic Rewards

positively valued work outcomes given to the individual by another person

New cards
82

Contrived Rewards

pay increase and cash bonuses

New cards
83

Natural Rewards

verbal praise and recognition

New cards
84

Organizational Behavior Modification

use of extrinsic rewards to systematically reinforce desirable work behavior and to discourage unwanted work behavior

New cards
85

Postitive Reinforcement

administration of positive consequences that tend to increase the likelihood that desirable behavior will be repeated

New cards
86

Law of Contingent Reinforcement

used to enforce the notion that there is some type of consequence for both good and bad behaviors

New cards
87

Law of Immediate Reinforcement

reward should be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior

New cards
88

Shaping

power of positive reinforcement can be mobilized, the creation of a new behavior by the positive reinforcement of a successive approximations of it

New cards
89

Continuous Reinforcement

administers a reward each times a desired behavior occurs

New cards
90

Intermittent Reinforcement

rewards behavior only periodically

New cards
91

Negative Reinforcement

a response or behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing, or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus

New cards
92

Punishment

intends to discourage undesirable behavior

New cards
93

Extinction

the withdrawal of reinforcing consequences in order to weaken undesirable behavior

New cards
94

Emotions

strong positive or negative feelings directed toward someone or something (arise from internal sources, and social emotions derive from external sources)

New cards
95

Affect

range of feelings in the forms of emotions and moods that people experience

New cards
96

Emotional Intelligence

an ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively

New cards
97

4 Essential Emotional Intelligence Competencies

1. Self- Awareness= the ability to understand our emotions and their impact on us and others

2. Social- Awareness= the ability to empathize and understand the emotions of others

3. Self- Management= self- regulation; thinking before acting and staying in control of our emotions

4. Relationship Management= rapport; making use of emotions to build and maintain good relationships

New cards
98

Self- Conscious Emotions

arise from internal sources

New cards
99

Social Emotions

derive from external forces

New cards
100

Mood

generalized positive and negative feelings or states of mind

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 214 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(6)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 44 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5325 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(9)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard62 terms
studied byStudied by 141 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard98 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 57 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard96 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)