Intro to Politics pt 2

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public opinion

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chapters 9-12

115 Terms

1

public opinion

those opinions held by private persons which governments find it prudent to heed

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2

scientific polling and public relations

Modern efforts to measure, shape, and exploit public opinion have spawned two linked industries: ______.

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3

larger

the (larger/smaller) the sample, the more closely the results would match the answers for the whole population

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4

1200 to 1500

scientific polling sample size

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5

scientific polling

Devoted to sounding out the public on an array of issues; A far better tool for systematically investing the opinions of ordinary people

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6

public relations

marketing ideas

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7

margin of error

the range of percentage points in which the sample accurately reflects the population

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8

measurement errors

The fit between the words and concepts used in questions and how people actually think about the issues is never perfect

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9

straw polling

an unofficial ballot conducted as a test of opinion

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10

attitude

an organized and consistent manner of thinking, feeling, and reacting with regard to people, groups, social issues, or, more generally, any event in one's environment

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11

liberals

ideologies of _____: favor using government ro reduce economic inequalities, champion the rights of disadvantaged groups such as radical minorities & women, and tolerate a more diverse range of social behaviors

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12

conservatives

ideologies of _____: distrust governments & have greater faith in private enterprise & free markets, but they are willing to use government to enforce traditional moral standards

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13

individualism

ideologies of _____: support for equal opportunity, moral traditionalism, deservingness, or opposition to big government q

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14

partisanship

party identification is subject to varying interpretations, but they are complementary rather than mutually exclusive; party preference was an element of a person's identity, either rooted in powerful personal experiences, or learned along with smaller IDs from family and neighborhood

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15

political socialization

the process of acquiring political attitudes

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16

cognitive misers

people reluctant to pay the cost of acquiring info that has no practical payoff; they may rely more heavily on groups cues -like from their political party- in order to express opinions

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17

cognitive shortcuts

mental shortcuts that people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently

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18

payoff

people tend to develop more complex, richly informed attitudes only when the _____ is greater than the cost of actually doing so

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19

framing

how the mass media and political campaigns can affect people's expressed political opinions

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20

ambivalence

elements of truth in both views, the most important source of instability in a person's expressed opinion

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21

aggregate public opinion

the sum of all individual opinions

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22

aggregate partisanship

the proportion of poll respondents labeling themselves Republican or Democrat

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23

opinion leaders

individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others

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24

issue publics

subsets of the population who are better informed than everyone else about an issue because it touches them more directly and personally

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25

consensus

Americans share a broad ______ on basic political values that puts real limits on what is politically possible

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26

high

(high/low) income and older people tend to contribute to public opinion

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27

decentralized

governmental power is spread among more than one person or group

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28

decentralized

the supreme doesn't have great control over the administration of justice; they have a _____ government

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29

congress

only _____ can remove a federal judge and only for serious offenses

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30

brown v. the board of education in topeka

1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

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31

writ of certiorari (certification)

sending cases up to superior court, this is how the Supreme Courts determine what cases it will hear

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32

rule of four

The Supreme Court will hear a case if four justices agree to do so.

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33

doctrine

policy making by the court

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34

Procedural doctrine and substantive doctrine

two types of due process

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35

procedural doctrine

governs the specific ways in which the lower courts should do their work

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36

substantive doctrine

more akin to policymaking, guides judges on which part in a case should prevail

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37

due process

fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.

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38

judicial review

seems to give the court the last work on much of public policy

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39

Article III

Article that establishes the Judicial Branch

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40

attorney General

the head of the department of justice

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41

Merrick Garland

Attorney General

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42

constitutional courts

Federal courts created by Congress under Article III of the Constitution, including the district courts, courts of appeals, & specialized courts such as the U.S. Court of International Trade

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43

court of appeals

A court with appellate jurisdiction that hears appeals from the decisions of lower courts.

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44

thirteen

How many courts of appeals are there?

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45

13 Court of Appeals

11 regional Courts of Appeals that represents the 50 states, one D.C. Court of Appeals, one Court of Appeals for the federal circuit

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46

Dissenting Opinion

A statement written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion

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47

District Courts

the lowest federal courts; federal trials can be held only here

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48

94

How many district courts are there?

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49

4

how many district courts does New York have?

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50

judicial doctrine

guidelines that lower court judges carefully weigh

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51

congress and the president

has the ability to rein in the court when they disagree

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52

activist

a judge who seeks to substitute their policy views for the views of the legislature

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53

activism

Those who change doctrine to conform with their view of the Constitution in a changing society are exercising judicial ________

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54

amicus curiae

"friend of the court" briefs arguing that a certiorari petition should be granted or denied

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55

concuring opinion

allow justices to provide their interpretations of what the majority opinion needs; a justice who has unique reason for supporting the majority may choose to write a concurring opinion

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56

blue slip

opportunity to veto the administration's nominee

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57

court-packing plans

provision proposed by FDR allowing the president to appoint an additional supreme court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70

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58

disenting opinion

a justice who disagrees with the majority of the court may elect to explain why

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59

emolument clause

prohibiting government officials from profiting from a foreign governments gives gifts and other forms of compensation

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60

federal question

A question that pertains to the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, or treaties. It provides a basis for federal jurisdiction.

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61

solicitor general

chief attorney for the US government

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62

stare decisis

"let the decision stand" establishing precedent in current cases

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63

2008 president election

this election, for the 1st time time since 1952 that neither candidate was sitting president or vice president

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64

Sen. John McCain

came from behind in the 2008 presidential election to win the republican party's nomination at 72 years old

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65

sarah palin

In 2008, this Republican governor of Alaska was the vice presidential candidate, running with John McCain. Second woman to be nominated for the office

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66

Bush

the 2008 presidential election Republican campaign was marked by deep unhappiness with the ____ administration

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67

Candiadte

person who can be portrayed as sufficiently qualified and trustworthy for the job

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68

House of Representatives

Members of the _____ often run unopposed because no one is willing to take them on in the primary or general election

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69

focus group

session in which a small number of ordinary citizens are observed as they talk with one another about political candidates, issues, and events

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70

issue voting

an individual's propensity to select candidates or parties based on the extent to which the individual agrees with one candidate more than others on specific issues

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71

microtargeting

specific campaign messages to those they think are the most susceptible

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72

candidates, message, & ways to inform voters about both (and MONEY)

common features throughout competitive campaigns

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73

negative or attack campaigning

pointed personal criticism of the other candidate

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74

party label

A label carrying the party's "brand name," incorporating the policy positions and past performance voters attribute to it.

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75

performance voting

Voting for the party in control

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76

single-issue voters

People who base their votes on candidates' or parties' positions on one particular issue of public policy, regardless of the candidates' or parties' positions on other issues.

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77

soft money

Campaign contributions unregulated by federal or state law, usually given to parties and party committees to help fund general party activities.

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78

Voter Disenfranchisement

to prevent a person or group of people from voting

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79

salient issues

The political issues that voters consider to be the most important in an election. For example, the economy, healthcare and crime

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80

John N. Mitchell

Nixon's first attorney general and his close friend and adviser; many people believe he ordered the Watergate break-in. He participated in the cover-up and served nineteen months in prison for his role. Went to Fordham.

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81

change

"_____" trumped "experience" in the 2008 elections

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82

public opinion and government action

election force the main link between ____ and ____ in the US

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83

61

the hotly contested & historical 2008 race inspired a turnout of only about ___%

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84

19th

suffrage for women

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85

15th

Suffrage for African American men

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86

Voting Rights Act of 1965

a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage

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87

26th

lowered the voting age to 18

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88

institutional

major reasons for decline of variations in turnover time

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89

Austrialian ballot

prepared by the government, listed candidates from all parties, and was marked in the privacy of a voting booth. Made it more difficult for parties to exchange favors for voters because it left no (legal) way for the party to know if voters kept their side of the bargain

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90

caucus

A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.

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91

national party convention

A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.

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92

New Deal Coalition

coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.

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93

party machines

mass-based party systems in which parties provided services and resources to voters in exchange for votes

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94

patronage

Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support

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95

political party

A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy

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96

primary election

election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election

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97

Progressive Era

time at the turn of the 20th century in which groups sought to reform America economically, socially, and politically

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98

split ticket

voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election

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99

superdelegates

party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses

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100

two-party system

An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.

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