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American Psychological Association Code of Ethics

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156 Terms

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American Psychological Association Code of Ethics

A set of ethical guidelines and standards that apply to all specialties in psychology, with a particular relevance to clinical psychologists.

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Aspirational

General principles in the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics that serve as ideals to strive for.

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Enforceable

Ethical standards in the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics that must be followed and can be enforced.

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Ethical Decision Making

The process of making decisions that are morally and ethically sound, often guided by models such as Celia Fisher's model.

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Psychologists' Ethical Beliefs

Beliefs about ethics held by members of the American Psychological Association, based on surveys and studies.

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Confidentiality

The ethical principle of keeping information shared by clients confidential, with specific mentions in the general principles and ethical standards of the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics.

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Tarasoff and the Duty to Warn

A legal case that established the duty of clinical psychologists to warn and protect potential victims when a client poses a threat, with interpretations varying from state to state.

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When the Client Is a Child or Adolescent

Ethical dilemmas that arise when determining how much information to reveal to parents, particularly in cases involving child abuse.

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Informed Consent

The process of obtaining permission from clients before conducting research, assessment, or therapy, which facilitates an educated decision.

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Multiple Relationships

Relationships between psychologists and clients that go beyond the professional boundaries, which can be problematic and should not be claimed to not exist.

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Defining Multiple Relationships

Ethical Standard 3.05a that distinguishes between sexual and nonsexual multiple relationships.

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What Makes Multiple Relationships Unethical?

Criteria for impropriety in multiple relationships, including impairment in the psychologist and exploitation or harm to the client.

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Competence

The quality of being competent as a psychologist, with boundaries of competence and the need to remain competent, including cultural competence.

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Personal Problems

Issues that psychologists may face in their personal lives that can impact their competence, including burnout.

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15

Ethics in Clinical Assessment

The ethical considerations and obligations in the selection, security, and use of psychological tests in clinical assessment.

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Managed Care and Ethics

The ethical challenges and dilemmas faced by clinical psychologists in managed care settings, including the position of divided loyalty and informing the client.

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Technology and Ethics

The ethical considerations in the use of technology in clinical psychology, such as psychological tests on the internet and online therapy practices.

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Ethics in Small Communities

The ethical issues that arise in small communities, including multiple relationships, and ways to overcome these ethical issues.

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19

Psychological Disorders

The fundamental reason for research in clinical psychology, which is to gain knowledge about psychological disorders and establish a foundation for the field.

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Treatment Outcome

Research to determine the effectiveness of specific therapies in treating different psychological disorders, often published in professional journals.

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Efficacy Versus Effectiveness

The distinction between statistical significance and clinical significance when interpreting the results of therapy outcome studies.

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Internal Versus External Validity

The distinction between internal validity (the extent to which a study accurately measures what it intends to) and external validity (the extent to which the findings can be generalized to other populations or settings) in treatment outcome studies.

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Assessment Methods

Research to evaluate and improve assessment methods, including the development, validation, and comparison of assessment tools.

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Diagnostic Issues

Research to explore issues of diagnosis and categorization, including the validity, reliability, and relationships between different disorders.

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Professional Issues

Research that examines various aspects of the profession of clinical psychology, including activities, beliefs, and practices.

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Teaching and Training Issues

Research on educating individuals entering the profession of clinical psychology, including training philosophies, specific coursework, and specialized training opportunities.

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Experimental Method

A research method that involves observing events, developing hypotheses, conducting empirical testing, and altering hypotheses based on the results.

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Hypothesis

A proposed explanation for observed events in a research study.

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Independent Variable

The variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher in an experiment.

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Dependent Variable

The variable that is measured or observed in an experiment and is expected to be influenced by the independent variable.

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Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs)

Research studies that maximize internal validity but may not always translate to real-world results.

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Quasi-Experiments

Research designs used when constraints limit the testing of certain hypotheses, but are considered less scientifically sound than experimental designs.

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Between-Group Design

An experimental design that involves an experimental group and a control group for comparison.

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Within-Group Design

An experimental design that involves comparisons of participants in a single condition at various points in time.

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Analogue Designs

Research designs that involve approximations of the target client or situation, using participants whose characteristics resemble those of the target population or asking participants to imagine themselves in a certain situation.

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Correlational Methods

Research methods conducted when an experiment or quasi-experiment is not plausible, examining the relationship between two or more variables.

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Case Studies

Thorough and detailed observations and examinations of a person or situation, stimulating systematic research and converging on important findings.

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Meta-Analysis

A statistical method of combining results from separate studies to create a summation of findings, involving formulating research questions, obtaining a representative study sample, conducting appropriate analyses, and reaching conclusions and offering suggestions.

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Cross-Sectional Designs

Research designs that are easier and more efficient, providing valid approximations for changes that take place or evolve over time.

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Longitudinal Designs

Research designs that require longer periods of time and provide valid approximations for changes that take place or evolve over time.

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41

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

A manual that defines mental disorders as clinically significant disturbances in cognition, emotion regulation, and behavior, reflecting a medical model of psychopathology.

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42

Harmful Dysfunction Theory

A theory that defines a disorder as a harmful dysfunction, combining value and scientific components based on social norms.

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43

Personal Distress

A criterion for defining abnormality, referring to the individual experiencing distress.

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Deviance from Cultural Norms

A criterion for defining abnormality, referring to behavior that deviates from the norms of a particular culture.

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Statistical Infrequency

A criterion for defining abnormality, referring to behavior that is statistically rare or uncommon.

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Impaired Social Functioning

A criterion for defining abnormality, referring to difficulties in social interactions and relationships.

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Labeling

The presence or absence of a diagnostic label that strongly impacts the attention received from clinical psychologists and can have effects on individuals' perceptions and outcomes.

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48

DSM

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a classification system used to diagnose and classify mental disorders.

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49

Psychoses

A category of mental disorders characterized by a loss of contact with reality, such as hallucinations or delusions.

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Neuroses

A category of mental disorders characterized by excessive anxiety or distress, but without a loss of contact with reality.

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Character disorders

A category of mental disorders characterized by enduring patterns of behavior that deviate from societal norms.

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Empirically based

Based on evidence and observation rather than theory or speculation.

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Psychoanalytic approach

A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of unconscious processes and early childhood experiences in shaping behavior and mental disorders.

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Diagnostic criteria

Specific symptoms or characteristics used to define a particular mental disorder.

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Multiaxial assessment system

A system used in DSM-III to assess mental disorders on multiple dimensions, including clinical symptoms, personality, and social functioning.

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DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR

Successive editions of the DSM that built upon the changes introduced in DSM-III.

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DSM-5

The current edition of the DSM, published in 2013, which introduced significant changes and revisions to the classification of mental disorders.

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Task Force

A group responsible for overseeing the development and revision of the DSM-5.

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59

Field trials

Research studies conducted to test the reliability and validity of the diagnostic criteria and categories proposed for the DSM-5.

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60

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

A new disorder included in DSM-5 characterized by severe mood symptoms that occur in the week before menstruation.

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Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

A new disorder included in DSM-5 characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts.

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Binge eating disorder

A new disorder included in DSM-5 characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive eating without compensatory behaviors.

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Mild neurocognitive disorder

A revised disorder in DSM-5 that replaces the term "mild cognitive impairment" and refers to a decline in cognitive functioning that is not severe enough to meet the criteria for dementia.

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Somatic symptom disorder

A revised disorder in DSM-5 that replaces the term "somatization disorder" and refers to the presence of distressing physical symptoms that are not fully explained by a medical condition.

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Autism spectrum disorder

A revised disorder in DSM-5 that combines several previously separate disorders, including autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder, into a single category.

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

A revised disorder in DSM-5 that includes changes to the age of symptom onset and the minimum number of symptoms required for diagnosis in adults.

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Bulimia nervosa

A revised disorder in DSM-5 that includes changes to the frequency of binge eating required for diagnosis.

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Substance use disorder

A revised disorder in DSM-5 that replaces the separate categories of substance abuse and substance dependence.

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69

Intellectual disability

A revised term in DSM-5 that replaces the term "mental retardation" and refers to significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

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Specific learning disorder

A revised disorder in DSM-5 that combines learning disabilities in math, reading, and writing into a single category.

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Obsessive-compulsive disorder

A disorder that was moved from the anxiety disorders category to a new category in DSM-5.

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Depressive disorders

A category of mood disorders characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest or pleasure in activities.

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Bipolar and related disorders

A category of mood disorders characterized by episodes of mania or hypomania alternating with episodes of depression.

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74

Controversy surrounding DSM-5

Criticisms and debates regarding the changes and revisions made in the DSM-5, including concerns about overdiagnosis and the validity of certain disorders.

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Allen Frances

A prominent critic of the DSM-5 who raised concerns about the safety and scientific basis of the changes made in the manual.

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Diagnostic overexpansion

A specific criticism of the DSM-5, referring to concerns that the diagnostic criteria have become too broad, leading to overdiagnosis of mental disorders.

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Field trial problems

Specific criticisms of the field trials conducted for the DSM-5, including concerns about the reliability and generalizability of the results.

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78

DSM

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used manual for diagnosing and classifying mental disorders.

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79

Interclinician reliability

The degree of agreement between different clinicians in diagnosing and classifying mental disorders.

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80

Categorical Approach

A method of diagnosis and classification that assigns individuals to specific categories or disorders.

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Dimensional Approach

A method of diagnosis and classification that considers mental disorders as existing on a continuum or spectrum.

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Five-factor model of personality

A model that identifies five broad dimensions of personality:neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

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83

Rapport

A strong sense of connection and trust between the interviewer and the client.

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Directive questioning approach

An interviewing style that involves asking specific and targeted questions to gather information.

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Nondirective questioning approach

An interviewing style that allows the client to guide the conversation and spend time on topics of their choosing.

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86

Open-ended questions

Questions that allow for individualized and spontaneous responses, often leading to longer and more detailed answers.

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Closed-ended questions

Questions that yield quick and precise answers, often with less elaboration and self-expression.

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Clarification

A technique used to ensure the interviewer's accurate understanding of the client's comments.

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Confrontation

A technique used to address discrepancies or inconsistencies in the client's comments.

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90

Paraphrasing

Restating the content of the client's comments using similar language to assure accurate understanding.

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Reflection of Feeling

Echoing the client's emotions to make them feel recognized and understood.

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Summarizing

Tying together various topics of discussion, identifying recurring themes, and letting clients know they have been understood in a comprehensive way.

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Note Taking

The act of documenting the interview, which can be more reliable than relying on the interviewer's memory but may also be a distraction to the client.

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Audio and Video Recordings

Recordings of interviews require the client's written permission and could hinder openness and willingness to disclose information. It is important to explain the rationale for recording to the client.

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95

The Interview Room

There are different types of interview room arrangements, including the traditional face-to-face arrangement and the arrangement where the interviewer and client sit at an angle between 90° and 180°. The setting should facilitate the fundamental goals of the interview and should avoid overtly personal items.

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96

Confidentiality

While many assume that interview sessions are absolutely confidential, there are situations where psychologists may need to break confidentiality. Some clients may assume that others have access to interview records, leading them to disclose very little. Interviewers should explain their policies regarding confidentiality.

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Types of Interviews

The form of an interview depends on various factors such as the setting, the client's presenting problem, and the issues the interview is intended to address. Some common types of interviews include intake interviews, diagnostic interviews, mental status exams, and crisis interviews.

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98

Intake Interviews

Intake interviews are conducted to determine whether a client needs treatment and what form of treatment is needed. These interviews involve detailed questioning about the client's presenting complaint.

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99

Diagnostic Interviews

Diagnostic interviews involve assigning DSM diagnoses to a client's problems and include questions that relate to the criteria of DSM disorders.

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100

Diagnostic Interviews

Structured Interviews Versus Unstructured Interviews:Structured interviews have advantages such as producing a diagnosis based explicitly on DSM criteria, being empirically sound, and standardized. However, they can be rigid and may inhibit rapport and the client's opportunity to elaborate or explain. Unstructured interviews involve interviewers improvising and determining questions on the spot to seek relevant information.

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