APHG unit 3 and 4

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material culture

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130 Terms

1

material culture

the physical, visible objects made and used by members of a cultural group

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non-material culture

intangible elements of culture including a wide range of beliefs, values myths, and symbolic meanings passed down generations

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3

cultural trait

a single aspect of given culture or society

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4

local culture

rural, ethnically homogenous culture that is deeply connected to the local land; opposite of popular culture

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5

indigenous culture

a local culture that is no longer the dominant ethnic group within its traditional homeland because of diffusion

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6

popular culture

heterogenous culture that is more influenced by key urban areas and quick to adopt new technology; opposite of local culture

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7

cultural attitudes

concepts and ideas in a society that are shaped by cultural opinions, beliefs, and perspectives

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8

language

a mutually agreed-upon system of symbolic communication

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9

polyglot

a person who is fluent in more that 2 languages

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10

religion

a structured set of beliefs and practices through which people seek mental and physical harmony with the powers of the universe

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11

ethnic group

a people of common ancestry and cultural tradition; characterized by a strong feeling of group identity

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12

race

historically defined by the physical characteristics of a group

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13

ethnic geography

the study of the spatial aspects of ethnicity

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14

multiculturalism

a set of policies that promote the active participation and inclusion of minority groups in national histories, national politics, and cultural institutions with the goal of embracing differences within society

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15

ethnocentric approach

an approach to understanding other cultures that evaluates them from the perspective of the observers culture

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16

cultural relativism

an approach to understanding other cultures that seeks to understand individuals and cultures from a wider perspective of cultural logic

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17

physical landspace

all the natural physical surroundings that create and shape the places we are living in or examining

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18

placelessness

the feeling resulting from the standardization of the built environment; occurs where local distinctiveness is erased and many places end up with similar cultural landscapes

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19

modernist architecture

a function, rational, and orderly style for building designs

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20

postmodern architecture

a design style that is a reaction against modernist architecture

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21

sequent occupance

refers to the fact that many places have been controlled or affected by a variety of groups over a period of time; those groups have reshaped the functions or meaning of those places and left behind layers of meaning

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22

sacred spaces

natural or human-made sites that possess religious meaning and are recognized as worthy of devotion, loyalty, fear, or esteem

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23

secular

less influenced or controlled religion

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24

subculture

a group of people with distant norms, values, and material practices that differentiate them from the dominant culture surrounding them

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25

sense of place

the distinctive feeling of a place, or a person's perception of place

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26

placemaking

efforts to use and design public place to better serve the needs of residents and to foster a stronger community

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27

centrifugal force

a force that threatens the cohesion of a neighborhood, society, or country

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28

secularization

the process whereby religion become a less dominant force in everyday life than it was in the past

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29

absorbing barriers

barriers that completely halt diffusion

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30

permeable barriers

barriers that slow diffusion but not completely

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31

pidgin

a trade language, characterized by a very small vocabulary derived from the languages of at least 2 or more groups in contact

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32

creole

a combined language that has a fuller vocabulary than pidgin language and becomes a native language

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33

creolization

the linguistic process where languages converge as create new languages and forms of communication

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34

lingua franca

a language of communication and commerce spoken

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35

bilingualism

the ability to speak 2 languages fluently

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36

empire

a sovereign political entity that seek to expand beyond their origin land to control more territory politically and/or politically

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37

imperialism

the motivating impulse to control greater amounts of territory

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38

colonialism

the act of forcefully controlling a foreign territory, which becomes known as a colony

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39

genocide

the systematic killing of members of a racial, ethnic, or linguistic group

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40

time-space convergence

the phenomenon where by the introduction of new transportation technology progressively reduces the time it take to travel between places

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41

endangered language

a language that it not taught to children by their parents and is not used actively in everyday matters

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42

extinct language

a language that has only a few elderly speakers or no living speakers

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43

culture hearth

a focused geographic area where important innovations are born and from they are spread

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44

languages family

a group of related languages that share a common ancestry

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45

dialect

a regional variation of a language that is understood by people who speak other variations of that language

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46

accent

a way of pronouncing words

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47

monotheistic

relating to the belief in only one god

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48

universalizing religion

a religion that actively seeks new members and believes its message has universal importance and application

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49

ethnic religion

a religion identified w/ a particular ethnic/tribal group that does not seek converts

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50

proselytic

describing a religion that spreads its message to others through missionary work

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51

toponyms

the names given to places

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52

generic toponyms

the generic part of a place-name

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53

polytheistic

relating to the belief in many gods

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54

animistic religion

a faith that subscribes to the idea that souls or spirts exist not only in humans, but also in animals, plants, and wildlife

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55

acculturation

occurs when an ethnic or immigrant group adopts enough of the ways of the host society to be able to function economically and socially

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56

assimilation

occurs when an ethnic or immigrant group blends in with host culture and loses many culturally distinctive traits

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57

transculturation

the notion that people adopt elements of other culture as well as contribute elements of their own culture

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58

syncretism

the blending of beliefs, ideas, practices, and traits (especially religious)

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59

syncretic religion

religion that combines elements of 2 or more different belief systems

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60

orthodox religion

religion that emphasizes purity of faith and is generally not open to blending withs elements of other belief systems

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61

political geography

a branch of human geography concerned with the spatial analysis of political system

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62

political map

a amp that shows the spatial organization of the countries and territories on the entire globe at a given point in time

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63

state or country

an independent political unit with a centralized authority over a region with defined boundaries

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64

independent state

a state that possesses the sole authority over the land and people within the boundaries

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65

nation

a community of people bound to a homeland and possessing a common identity based on shared cultural traits

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66

nation-state

the ideal political geographical unit; one in which the nation's geographic boundaries exactly match states's territorial boundaries

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67

nation-state ideal

the idea that political authorities govern in the name of all country's citizens, modern mass communication links all residents, and state based citizenship rights reinforce the idea of a national identity

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68

escarpments

abrupt slopes that break up the general continuity of the terrain

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69

effective sovereignty

the idea that a state's power to enforce its sovereignty may extend beyond its territory and varies over time from country to country

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70

devolution

the movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state

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71

ethnonationalism

a form of nationalism in which the nation is defined in terms off ethnic identity

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72

neocolonialism

the set of economic and political strategies by which wealthy and powerful countries indirectly maintain or extend their influence over less wealthy areas

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73

peripheral states

states that have relatively little industrial development

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74

core states

states that have the most advanced industrial and military technologies

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75

shatterbelt

region of continuing and persistent fragmentation due to devolution and centrifugal forces

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76

choke point

a narrow passage that restricts traffic to another region

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77

strait

a narrow body of water connecting 2 larger bodies

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78

boundary

a clearly demarcated line that marks both the limits of a territory and the divisions between

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79

median line principle

an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the midpoint between 2 places

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80

borderland

a region straddling both sides of an international boundary where national cultures overlap and blend to varying degrees

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81

frontier

a region at the margins or state control and settlement

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82

enclave

a territory surrounded by a country but not ruled by it

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83

exclave

part of a national territory separated from the main body of the country to which it belongs

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84

delimited

describing how boundaries are fixed or defined to identify their limits

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85

demarcated

describing how boundaries are set apart to distinguish their limits

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86

relic boundary

a boundary that no longer functions an international boundary

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87

superimposed boundary

a boundary that is placed on an area without regard to existing boundaries

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88

subsequent boundary

a political boundary that developed with the cultural landscape

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89

antecedent boundary

a boundary that was identified before an area was settled

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90

geometric boundary

a boundary that has regular, often perfectly straight lines drawn without regard for an area's physical or cultural features

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91

consequent boundary

a boundary that is drawn to accommodate existing cultural differences

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92

demilitarized zone

area where countries have decided to not allow military activity

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93

buffer state

a politically and economically weak independent country that lies between the borders of 2 powers

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94

satellite state

a nominally independent country that is politically, military, and economically controlled by a more powerful state

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95

united nations convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS)

conference organized to define territorial boundaries and rights to the sea

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96

exclusive economic zone (EEZ)

zone that extends 200 nautical miles from the shoreline in which coastal states have the sole right to exploit, develop, manage, and conserve all water resources lying beyond the land

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97

electoral geography

a subfield of political geography that analyzes the geography of political preferences and how geography can shape voting outcomes

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98

voting district

a territorial division for casting votes in public election

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99

electoral college

a body of 538 electors in the us; majority of 270 electoral votes is required to elect the president

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100

reappointment

the process by which the 435 seats in the us house of reps. are divided proportionately by population among the 50 states following every us census

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