MMG 1650 exam 1

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microbiology

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159 Terms

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microbiology

literal: study of small living things study of microbes (often invisible to naked eye)

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microbe

cellular, living microorganisms such as bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and helminths and nonliving/noncellular entities such as viruses and prions

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microorganism

cellular, living microorganisms such as bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and helminths

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Koch's Postulates

  1. The same organism must be present in every case of the disease but not present in healthy individuals

  2. The organism must be isolated from the diseased host and grown as a pure culture

  3. The isolated organism should cause the disease in question when it is inoculated into a susceptible host

  4. The organism must then be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased animal

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prokaryote/prokaryotic

unicellular, lack a nucleus bacteria and archaea

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eukaryote/eukaryotic

multicellular or unicellular, distinct nucleus animal, plant, fungal, protists

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taxonomy

branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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kingdom

below domain (6) animalia, plantae, fungi, protista, archaea, bacteria

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binomial nomenclature

2 name system including genus and species designations

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genus

A group of similar species (first name, capitalized)

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species

group of organisms on the basis of genetic similarity, biochemical, and phenotypic criteria (second name, lowercase)

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bacteriology

study of bacteria

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mycology

study of yeasts and molds

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mycoses

disease caused by fungi

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parasitology

study of protozoa and helminths (& ectoparasites)

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ectoparasite

a parasite that lives on the outside of its host

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helminth

parasitic worm

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protozoa

animal like protists that are unicellular, lack a true cell wall, exhibit asexual and sexual reproduction, and typically live by heterotrophic means

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virology

study of viruses

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infectious disease

illness caused by a pathogen

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etiological agent

causative agent

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true pathogen

does not require a weakened host to cause disease

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opportunistic pathogen

only cause disease when their host is weakened in some way

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strain

genetic variants of the same species OR descendants of a species that are classified based on unique characteristics defined by serotyping, enzyme typing, protein/nucleic acid plasmic characterization

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binary fission

asexual form of reproduction used most by prokaryotic cells

  1. cell copies its DNA containing chromosome

  2. cell elongates

  3. septum starts to form

  4. cell is partitioned

  5. daughter cells separate

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generation time

the time it takes for a population to double

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growth/culture media

mixtures of nutrients that support organismal growth in an artificial setting can be solid, liquid, or semisolid

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colony

grouping of cells that developed from a single parent cell

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polymicrobial

more than one species

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biofilm

sticky communities made up of single or diverse microbial species planktonic (free floating) bacteria adhere to a surface

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bacillus

rod or cylindrical shape

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coccus

spherical

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vibrio

comma shaped

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coccobacillus

ovoid (oval)

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spirochete

spiral shaped

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diplococcus

paired cocci

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peptidoglycan

protein carbohydrate substance, component of bacterial cell walls

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lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

glycolipid that enriches the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria

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gram stain

classifies bacteria as gram positive or gram negative based on differences in cell wall structure positive: purple, thick layer of peptidoglycan (no outer membrane) negative: pink, thin layer of peptidoglycan (one outer membrane)

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cell wall

lies just outside plasma membrane, all contain peptidoglycan, provides structure and protection

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acid-fast

have waxy cell walls with mycolic acid, bright pink/red

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capsule

sticky carbohydrate based structures that some bacteria produce as a form of protection/adherence

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flagella

tail like structures used for motility

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fimbriae

short, bristle like structures that extrude from the cell surface, adhesive

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pili

longer, more rigid, less numerous than fimbriae, used to adhere to surfaces, move, and aid in gene transfer through conjugation

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nucleoid

contains prokaryotic DNA, RNA, some proteins, centralized region of the cell, not membrane enclosed

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ribosomes

organelle made of RNA and protein, nonmembrane bound, build proteins by linking RNA

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endospore

specialized dormant structures made in response to stressful/harsh conditions

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endocytosis

Importation of matter by a eukaryotic cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole

  1. pinocytosis

  2. phagocytosis

  3. receptor mediated endocytosis

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exocytosis

Exportation of matter that involves vesicles delivering their contents to the plasma membrane

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phagocytosis

endocytosis of large particles ("cell eating")

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phagosome

Endocytic vesicle formed by phagocytosis

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lysosome

vesicle like organelle packed with hydrolytic enzymes

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phagolysosome

Intracellular vesicle formed by fusion of a phagosome with a lysosome, in which the phagocytosed material is broken down by degradative lysosomal enzymes.

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endosome

small vesicle with an acidic interior

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yeast

unicellular fungi, may form chains of cells, smooth/creamy, look similar to bacterial colonies

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mold

multicellular fungi, "fluffy" colonies, requires special stains to visualize

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hyphae

collection of tubular structures by which fungi grow

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mycelium

densely branched network of the hyphae of a fungus

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dimorphic fungi

grow as yeast or mold depending on conditions (two forms)

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spores/conidia

reproductive unit of a fungus (critical to identifying fungal species)

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Psuedohyphae

result of a sort of incomplete budding where the cells elongate but remain attached after division

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virion

single, infectious virus particle

  1. Genetic material (DNA or RNA) 2)capsid (protein shell)

  2. OPTIONAL envelope (membrane surrounding capsid)

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naked virus

virus without an envelope

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enveloped virus

virus with a lipid based coating that surrounds the capsid (envelope)

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lysis

host cell bursts and virions spill out; common with naked viruses

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budding

virions bud off host cycle membrane; common with enveloped viruses

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host range

the collection of species that a pathogen can infect

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tropism

preference of a pathogen for a specific host (or even a specific type of cell within the host)

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pathogen

microbes that cause disease

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medical microbiology

branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases

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prodromal phase

patient starts to feel rundown and may have mild symptoms

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acute phase

experience full blown classical symptoms of the disease

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convalescent phase

not fully better but recovering; involves elimination of pathogen from body

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sign

objective indicators of disease that can be measured or verified ex: fever, rash, blood in stool

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symptom

sensed by the patient and are subjective rather than precisely measurable ex: pain, fatigue, nausea

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asymptomatic

no signs/symptoms of infection

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epidemiology

studies patterns in disease incidence and control and prevention literal: what is upon the people

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morbidity

existence of disease

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mortality

number of deaths during specific time period

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endemic

routinely detected in a population/region ex: common cold/flu

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epidemic

widespread disease outbreak in particular region during a specific time frame

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pandemic

worldwide outbreak of disease

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reservoir

animate or inanimate habitat where the pathogen is naturally found

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vector borne transmission

spread of disease via organism (arthropods & rodents) that spread infectious agents to susceptible hosts

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biological vector

organism has role in the pathogens life cycle

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mechanical vector

spreads disease without being integral to pathogen life cycle

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food borne transmission

food contaminated with feces from an infected animal

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vertical transmission

pathogen passes from mother to offspring during pregnancy, delivery, or via breast milk

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endogenous

pathogen came from hosts own body ex: misplaced normal microbiota, disrupted microbiota and opportunistic pathogens

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exogenous

source external to host ex: animals, humans, environmental

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portal of entry

any site that a pathogen uses to enter the host ex: eye, ear, respiratory, skin, GI tract

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parenteral entry

entry though skin (bites, cuts, injections, and surgical incisions)

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portal of exit

any route a pathogen uses to exit the host ex: feces, urine, bodily fluids, respiratory droplets

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communicable disease

transmits from human to human

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zoonotic disease

spread from animals to humans

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Healthcare acquired infection (HAI)

an infection that a patient develops while receiving care in a healthcare setting

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nosocomial infection

synonym for HAI

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mutualism

helps host

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commensalism

no perceived benefit or cost to host

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