Memory

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who conducted the study of the STM's duration

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Psychology

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1

who conducted the study of the STM's duration

Peterson & Peterson (1959)

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2

study of the duration of the STM

24 students in 8 trials

a consonant syllable

3-digit number which they count back from

were asked to stop in 3-18 intervals

3s = 80% recall

18s 3% recall

suggests STM has a duration of 18s til maintenance rehearsal

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3

study of duration of the LTM

392 particpants aged 14-74 - yearbooks obtained

  1. photo recogntion 2) free recall 15 yrs = 1) 90% 2) 60% 48+ yrs = 1) 70% 2) 30% potentially can last a liftetime

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4

who conducted the study of the LTM's duration

Bahrick et al (1975)

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5

who conducted the study of the STM's capacity

Jacobs 1887

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6

study into STM capacity

measured digit span of 4 digits increased one if recalled correctly

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7

findings from the STM study into capacity

mean span for digits = 9.3 mean span for letters = 7.3

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8

who conducted the study of chunking and span of memory

Miller 1956

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9

what did miller (1956) observe

things in everyday practice come in 7

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10

what did miller suggest about the capacity of STM

7 (+/-2) and chunking into 5s makes easier recall

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11

what is the capacity of the LTM

potentially infinite

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12

what is the capacity of STM

7 +/- 2

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13

Strength of research into capacity

the 1887 study has been replicated therefore even if confounding varibale of distraction it has temproal validty

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14

limitation of research in capacity

overestimates chunks > cowen (2001) suggets STM has a capacity of 4 +/1 is more appropriate

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15

what is coding

the way infromation is stored in the memory in different forms

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16

who studied coding of memory

Baddeley (1966)

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17

what was the study into how the memory is coded

gave 4 different lists to 4 groups acoustically dis/imilar and semantically dis/imilar acoustically similar had the immediate worst recall after 20 minutes recall was worse with semantic

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18

how is the STM coded

acoustically

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19

how is LTM coded

semantically

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20

strength of coding research

shows that there is seperate memory stores for S and L TM

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21

limitation of coding research

artificial stimuli has been used > limits the application

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22

what is the msm

describes flow between three permanent storage systems of memory SR, STM and LTM

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23

who created the msm

Atkinson & Shiffrins (1968)

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24

what is the sensory register

where information from the senses is stored, duration of half a second, It is modality-specific

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25

what is the STM

coded acoustically, duration of 18s and capacity of 5/9 items, must rehearse it for it to go into LTM

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26

what is the LTM

coded semantically, potentially last forever and has a unlimited capacity

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27

strengths of MSM

Research support > Baddely (1966) acoustically/semantic dis/imilar word study and Bahrick (1975) yearbook study

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28

Limitations of MSM

Shallice & warrington (1970) different stores in STM > KF = bad acoustic but good iconic elaboratibe rehearsal > Craik & Warrington agrued that type was more important > MSM doesnt really explain

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29

what is the WMM

explanation of how STM is organised and functions when temporarily storing information

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30

who created the WMM

Baddeley & Hitch (1974)

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31

what are the 4 main components of the WMM

Central excecutive, phonological loop, Visuospatial sketchpad and episodic buffer

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32

what is the central excutive

acts in a supervisory role for the rest of the slave systems, monitors incoming data and distributes to the slave systems, focuses/divides our attention.

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33

what is the phonological loop

deals with auditory information, coded acoustically, preserves the order in which information arrives 2 subsystems: auditory process (maintenance rehearsal) and phonological store (stores the words you hear)

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34

Visuospatial sketchpad

stores visual information and has limited capacity 2 subsystems: visual cache (stores visual data) and the inner scribe (records the arrangement of objects in the visual field).

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35

Episodic Buffer

temporary store which maintains time sequencing and intergates info from the slave systems

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36

Strength of WMM

clincial evidence > shallice and warrington (1970) KF = poor STM for auditory, good STM for iconic (PL damaged but not VSS) Dual task importance > Baddely (1975) unable to do same type of task as they compete for the same subsytem

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37

Limitations of WMM

Lack of clarity over CE > recognises the importance but least understood, may be separate componenets Artificial & controlled > studies of WMM lack mudance realism

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38

who proposed the 3 LTM stores

Tulving (1985)

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39

3 LTM stores

Procedural, Semantic, episodic

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40

what is the episodic store of the memory

refers to our ability to recall events, record of personal experiences, time stamped and detailed

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41

what is the semantic store of the memory

our shared knoelege of the world, immense collection of material over a range of topics, not time stamped/personal and less vunerable to distorion

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42

what is the procedural store of the memory

memory of actions/skills, no concious effort and difficult to explain

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43

Strengths of types of LTM

Clinical evidence > Clive wearing (infection) was able to play piano (procedual unaffected) but episodic memory serverly damaged Research application > understanding LTM = Belleville imporved episodic memeroy through intervention, peformed better if trained

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44

limitation of types of LTM

Conflicting neuroimaging evidence > Buckner & Peterson (1996) reviewed location of the semantic/episodic memory

semantic left side of prefrontal cortex Episodic on the right side of prefrontal cortex Tulving et al (1994) left prefrontal cortex = encoding of episodic memory + right with episodic retrieval

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45

explanations for forgetting

interfernce & retrieval failure

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46

interference theory

when 2 pieces of information disrupt each other resulting in forgetting

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47

what are the 2 types of interference

proactive and retroactive

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48

what is proactive interference

when a older memory interfers with a newer memory

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49

what is retroactive interference

when a newer memory interfers with a older memory

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50

what are the effects of similarity

PI = previous words make it harder fro newer ones to be stored RI = new info overwrites precious info because of similarity

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51

who studied similarity

McGeoch & McDonald (1931)

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52

study into similarity

Ps learnt list of 10 words then learnt new list of either synonym, antonym, 3 digit, constant, unrealted words Similar words had worst recall

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53

strengths of interfefer

baddeley & hitch (1977) > rugby players, recall names of teams, the players that played most had worst recall

counterpoint = interference is rare/retrieval failure is more likely

Support from drug studies > list learned under diazepam + recall week later was poor, list learned before diazepam + later recalled was better = drug improved recall of material learned beforehand Wixted (2004) = drug prevents new information from reaching the processing part of memories

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54

Limitations of interference

temporary/can be overcome via cues/hints Tulving & Psoka (1971) gave ps list of words organised into categories one list at a time = recall 70% for the first list but became worse as the learned the others (PI) At the end they were given name of list = 70% again = interference causes temporary loss of accessibility to material that is still in LTM

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55

what is retrieval failure

forgetting due to insufficent cues

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56

encoding specificity principle

Tulving (83) a cue needs to be present at encoding + retrieval

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57

two types of retrieval failure

context + state dependent forgetting

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58

what is context-state forgetting

recall is dependent on external cues

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59

what is state-dependent forgetting

recall is dependent on internal cues

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60

who conducted research into context-dependent forgetting

Godden & Baddeley (1975)

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61

studying into context-dependent forgetting

deep sea divers, given a list of words, learnt on/off land + recalled on/off land recall 40% lower in non-matched = external cues different from cues at recall

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62

who conducted research into state-dependent forgetting

Carter & Cassaday (1998)

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63

what was the research for state dependent forgetting

hayfever (physological internal cue) if different = recall worse

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64

strengths of retrieval failure

real-world applications = retrieval cues can help everyday forgetting (Baddeley suggests cues help us remember) research support = Esyunck & Keane argue that retrieval failure is main explanation for LTM forgetting > but context needs to be very different

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65

limitations of retrieval failure

Depends on the type of memory tested > Godden & Baddeley (1980) replicated diver experiment but used recognition = no context-dependent effect > retrieval failure only applies to recalling

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66

Factors effecting EWT

misleading information (including leading questions & post-event discussion) and anxiety

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67

types of misleading information

leading questions & post-event discussion

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68

who conducte the study into how leading questions

Loftus & Palmer (1974)

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69

what was the study into leading questions

45 p, watched car accident, crictial questions given different verbs condacted = 31.8 and smashed = 40.5

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70

what is response bias explanation

the use of leading question has no real affect other than encourages them to choose a higher speed

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71

what is subsititute explanation

Loftus and Palmer in a 2nd experiment suggetsed that the wording changed the memory = of they heard smashed = saw glass critical verb can alter events

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72

strengths of leading questions

control over confounding variable as the study was lab based Real world application = recommed that it is not safe to convict on 1 EWT

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73

Limtations of leading questions

Artificial/lacks mundane realism = very different to experiencing it first-hand, Forester points out that response in research has very little impact Evidence against substitutions = Sutherland & Hayne, clip then misleading question, recall was better for central details than peripheral, resistance to misleading info and memories weren't distorted

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74

Who studied post-event discussion

Gabbert et al (2003)

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75

study into post event discussion

P in pairs, watched clip from different angles, discussed 71% mistakenly recalled aspects they did not see

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76

what are the results of post-event discussion

memory conformity or memory contamination

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77

Memory conformity

Witness go along with each other for social approval

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78

memory contamination

when discussed their memory becomes altered and combine the (mis)information with their own

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79

A03 of misleading information

Evidence against memory conformity > Skagerberg & Wright, 2 clips blonde/brown hair, discussed = medium brown hair > distored not conformed Foster = artifical scenarios

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80

how can anxitey affect EWT

weapon focus or alertness

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81

how does anxitey negatively affect EWT

focuses on weapon on reducing recall to events

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82

who conducted a study into weapon focus

Johnson & Scott (1976)

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83

what was the study for weapon focus

  1. Low anxitey = sitting room + pen + grease = recognition of man 49% out of 50 photos

  2. High anxitey = argument + life + blood = recognition of man 33% tunnel theory = people have enhanced for central elements

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84

strength of anxitey having a negative affect

Valentine and Mesout (2009), heart rate to divide participants into high and low groups, Anxiety disrupted ability to recall the actors face (labyrinth at london dungeons)

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85

Limitations of anxitey having a negative affect

Pickel (1998) scissors, handgun, wallet, raw chicken (handheld item), hair salon video, EWT was worse on unsual condtion = unsualness not anxitey

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86

how does anxitey improve alertness

Fight or flight response increases alertness improving memory for event

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87

who conducted the study into anxitey imporving alertness

Yuille & Cutshall (1986)

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88

study into anxitey imporving alertness

gun shop in Canada, shop owner shot thief, 13 witnesses took part, interviewed ⅘ months after incident + compared with original police interviews, t rate how stressed they felt/emotional problems since little changes in accuracy

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89

what were the findings of Yuille & Cutshalls gunshop study

little change in accuracy > highest level of stress = 88% less stressed = 75% anxitey improves memory

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90

strength of anxitey having a postive affect

Christian & Gubinette (1993) 58 witness, bank robbery, sweden, directly involved = 75% accurate

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91

limitation of anxitey having a postive affect

Interviewed 4-15 months after No control over post-event discussion Effect on anxiety may have overwhelmed by post event and Lack of control over confounding variables

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92

how was accuracy determinded in the gun shop study

by the number for details reported in each account

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93

What is the cognitive interview

a method of interviewing eyewitnesses which use techniques based on psychological insights into how memory works

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94

Who created the cognitive interview

Fisher & Geiselman (1992)

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95

What are the four techniques

Report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order and change the perspective

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96

why are they asked to report everything

it may trigger other important details/small details may be important

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97

why are they asked to renstate the context

by returing to the orginal scene in their mind may reduce context-dependent forgetting

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98

why are they asked to reverse the order

prevents people reporting their expectation and dishonesty

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99

why are they asked to change perspective

prevents people reporting their expectations of events/schema of setting

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100

who developed the enhanced cognitive interview

Fisher et al (1987)

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