MODULE 1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals

1 / 173

Tags and Description

terms from the module 1 readings

174 Terms

1

Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals

micronutrients

New cards
2

Those containing carbon bonded to hydrogen.

organic molecules

New cards
3

Those containing no carbon–hydrogen bonds.

inorganic molecules

New cards
4

The unit of heat that is used to express the amount of energy provided by foods. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius (1 kcalorie = 4.18 kjoules).

kilocalorie (kcalorie, kcal)

New cards
5

A unit of work that can be used to express energy intake and energy output. It is the amount of work required to move an object weighing one kilogram a distance of 1 metre under the force of gravity (4.18 kjoules = 1 kcalorie).

kilojoule (kjoule, kJ)

New cards
6

The starchy seeds of plants belonging to the pea family; includes peas, peanuts, beans, soybeans, and lentils.

legumes

New cards
7

The sum of all the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism.

metabolism

New cards
8

A science that studies the interactions that occur between living organisms and food.

nutrition

New cards
9

Chemical substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes.

nutrients

New cards
10

Foods that have been specially treated or changed from their natural state

processed foods

New cards
11

Noncommunicable diseases that develop slowly over a lifetime and need continuing medical attention to manage and control.

chronic disease

New cards
12

This is a comprehensive survey of health-related issues, including the eating habits of Canadians, that was begun in 2000 and continues to collect data annually. Results of this survey will be presented throughout this textbook.

Canadian Community Health Survey

New cards
13

Nutrients that must be provided in the diet because the body either cannot make them or cannot make them in sufficient quantities to satisfy its needs.

essential nutrients

New cards
14

Foods to which one or more nutrients have been added, typically to replace nutrient losses during processing or to prevent known inadequacies in the Canadian diet.

fortified foods

New cards
15

Natural health products are a category of products regulated by Health Canada that include vitamin and mineral supplements, amino acids, fatty acids, probiotics, herbal remedies, and homeopathic and other traditional medicines. They occupy a middle ground between food and drugs.

natural health products

New cards
16

Substances found in plant foods (phyto means plant) that are not essential nutrients but may have

phytochemicals

New cards
17

Substances found in animal foods (zoo means animal) that are not essential nutrients but may have healthpromoting properties.

zoochemicals

New cards
18

Nutrients that can be metabolized to provide energy in the body

energy-yielding nutrients

New cards
19

Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts. These include water and the energy-yielding nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

macronutrients

New cards
20

A physiological state in which a stable internal body environment is maintained.

homeostasis

New cards
21

Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal.

malnutrition

New cards
22

Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake below that which meets nutritional needs.

undernutrition

New cards
23

Poor nutritional status resulting from an energy or nutrient intake in excess of that which is optimal for health.

overnutrition

New cards
24

Units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited trait

genes

New cards
25

The study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health.

nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics

New cards
26

A state in which there is a sufficient amount of a nutrient or nutrients in the diet to maintain health

adequacy

New cards
27

An evaluation of the nutrient content of a food in comparison to the kcalories it provides.

nutrient density

New cards
28

The increase in portion sizes for typical restaurant and snack foods, observed over the last 40 years

portion distortion

New cards
29

A description of a way of eating that includes the types and amounts of foods and food groups, rather than individual nutrients.

dietary pattern

New cards
30

A set of reference values for the intake of energy, nutrients, and food components that can be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people in the United States and Canada.

dietary reference intakes (DRIs)

New cards
31

Groupings of individuals based on stages of growth and development, pregnancy, and lactation, that have similar nutrient needs.

life-stage groups

New cards
32

Intakes that are sufficient to meet the nutrient needs of almost all healthy people in a specific life-stage and gender group.

recommended dietary allowances (RDAs)

New cards
33

Intakes that should be used as a goal when no RDA exists. These values are an approximation of the average nutrient intake that appears to sustain a desired indicator of health.

adequate intakes (AIs)

New cards
34

Maximum daily intakes that are unlikely to pose a risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the specified life-stage and gender group.

tolerable upper intake levels (ULs)

New cards
35

Intakes that meet the estimated nutrient needs of 50% of individuals in a gender and life-stage group.

estimated average requirements (EARs)

New cards
36

A functional indicator, such as the level of a nutrient in the blood, that can be measured to determine the biological effect of a level of nutrient intake.

criterion of adequacy

New cards
37

A plot of the nutrient requirements for a group of individuals in the same life stage. Typically, the plot has the shape of a bell curve, i.e., a normal or binomial distribution.

requirement distribution

New cards
38

The value in a series of numerical values that divides the series exactly in half, with 50% being larger, and 50% being lower than the median.

Median

New cards
39

s set well above the needs of everyone in the population and represents the highest amount of the nutrient that will not cause toxicity symptoms in the majority of healthy people.

The UL

New cards
40

is the median of a requirement distribution. If everyone in the population consumed this amount, only 50% (shown as horizontal lines) would obtain enough of the nutrient to meet their requirement

An EAR

New cards
41

A method that indicates the proportion of a population that is not meeting its requirements, indicated by the proportion of the population with intakes below the EAR.

EAR cut-point method

New cards
42

A plot of the intakes of a specific nutrient in a population.

intake distribution

New cards
43

The amount of energy recommended by the DRIs to maintain body weight in a healthy person based on age, gender, size, and activity level.

estimated energy requirements (EER)

New cards
44

Ranges of intake for energyyielding nutrients, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, that are associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients.

acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs)

New cards
45

elements of the social and physical environment that impact food choices, by influencing the types of foods available, the accessibility to food, and the exposure to food and nutrition information, including through marketing and advertising

Food environment

New cards
46

A nutrient reference value used on food labels to help consumers make comparisons between foods and select more nutritious food.

daily value

New cards
47

Reference values established for vitamins and minerals in Canada in the 1980s and 1990s

recommended daily intakes (RDIs)

New cards
48

Reference values established for several other nutrients. The values are based on dietary recommendations for reducing the risk of chronic disease.

reference standards

New cards
49

An environment that promotes weight gain by encouraging overeating and physical inactivity

obesogenic environment

New cards
50

The desire to consume specific foods that is independent of hunger.

appetite

New cards
51

describes the amounts of individual nutrients that are needed (e.g., how much vitamin C a person needs to consume)

nutrient-based approach

New cards
52

a dietary pattern is recommended - makes recommendations on foods to eat (and foods to avoid) to reduce the risk of chronic disease (e.g., avoid foods high in sugar, salt, or saturated fat).

food-based approach

New cards
53

the amounts and types of food to eat to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients - describes the number of servings of vegetables and fruits a person should eat.

dietary pattern

New cards
54

Recommended Nutrient Intakes

RNI

New cards
55

Recommended Dietary Allowances

RDA

New cards
56

Recommendations were made for the intake of kcalories and nutrients at risk for deficiency—protein, vitamins, and minerals. Levels of intake were based on amounts that would prevent nutrient deficiencies.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)

New cards
57

new set of energy and nutrient intake recommendations - designed to promote health as well as prevent nutrient deficiencies.

Dietary Reference Intakes, or DRIs.

New cards
58

Dietary Reference Intakes

DRIs.

New cards
59

food-based dietary pattern, has been a central tool in the promotion of nutritious eating.

Canada’s Food Guide

New cards
60

The first guide was called _ and was developed in 1942. This was during wartime, when food rationing was in place, and the government wanted to optimize the nutrient intake of Canadians during a time of food shortages.

Canada’s Official Food Rules

New cards
61

In 1961, Canada’s Food Rules became _ and the guide has been updated several times since then

Canada’s Food Guide

New cards
62

The most recent version of _ was released in January 2019. It promotes a healthy eating pattern including vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and protein foods.

Canada’s Food Guide

New cards
63

advises Canadians to use food labels to compare foods and make better food choices.

Canada’s Food Guide

New cards
64

designed to be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people.

DRIs

New cards
65

They do not apply to people who are ill.

DRI

New cards
66

include recommendations for energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein, and micronutrients, including fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, water-soluble vitamins such as the B vitamins and vitamin C, and minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, fluoride, selenium, iron, zinc, copper, sodium, and potassium.

DRI

New cards
67

A, D, E, and K

fat-soluble vitamins

New cards
68

the B vitamins and vitamin C

water-soluble vitamins

New cards
69

established to account for the physiological differences among infants, children, adolescents, adults, older adults, and pregnant and lactating women.

life-stage groups

New cards
70

Estimated average requirement

EAR

New cards
71

Recommended dietary allowance

RDA

New cards
72

Adequate intake

AI

New cards
73

Tolerable upper intake level

UL

New cards
74

Two sets of values, the & _ can be used to set goals for individual intake and can be used to plan or evaluate individual diets

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Adequate Intakes

New cards
75

help individuals prevent nutrient toxicities.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)

New cards
76

used to determine the RDA and is also used to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intakes for groups of people or populations.

estimated average requirement (EAR)

New cards
77

is the amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the needs of 50% of people in the same sex and life-stage group.

EAR

New cards
78

scientists must establish a measurable marker of adequacy, based on an understanding of the function of the nutrient in the body - typically the activity of an enzyme, the amount of nutrient stored in the body, the amount of nutrient excreted in the urine, or the level of a nutrient or metabolite in the blood, which can be evaluated to determine the biological effect of a level of nutrient intake.

criterion of adequacy

New cards
79

centre line is the _ of the curve and is also the estimated average requirement (EAR), that is, the nutrient intake that meets the nutrient requirement for 50% of the population in the life stage measured in the experiment.

median

New cards
80

are intakes that meet the nutrient requirements, not of 50% of healthy individuals as is the case with the EAR, but almost 98% of individuals in a population (the exact value is between 97%–98% of the population).

RDA

New cards
81

a higher value than the EAR

RDA

New cards
82

RDA is determined by starting with the EAR value and using a statistic called _. a measure of the range or width of the requirement distribution curve

Standard deviation

New cards
83

estimates used when there are insufficient experimental data to set an EAR and calculate an RDA

Adequate Intakes

New cards
84

represent the maximum level of daily intake of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose a risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the specified group.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

New cards
85

These are not recommended levels, but levels of intake that can probably be tolerated

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

New cards
86

determine the adequacy of a population’s intake using a method called _

EAR cut-point method

New cards
87

provides an estimate of how much energy is needed to maintain body weight and the other provides information about the proportion of each of the energy-yielding nutrients from which this energy should come.

DRI two types of recommendation

New cards
88

Estimated Energy Requirements

EER

New cards
89

recommendations for energy intake

EER

New cards
90

estimates of the number of kcalories needed to keep weight stable in a healthy person and are based on experimentally-developed equations

EER

New cards
91

Variables in the equations include age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity - Changing any of these variables changes the ___

EER

New cards
92

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

AMDRs

New cards
93

recommendations for the proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein that make up a healthy diet

AMDRs

New cards
94

recommendations are expressed as ranges because healthy diets can contain many different combinations of carbohydrate, protein, and fat

AMDR

New cards
95

carbohydrate

45% to 65% of kcalories from

New cards
96

fat

20% to 35% from

New cards
97

protein

10% to 35% from

New cards
98

allow flexibility in food choices based on individual preferences while still providing a diet that meets nutrient requirements and minimizes disease risk.

AMDR

New cards
99

Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes

CDRR

New cards
100

use of an additional DRI, based on intakes that result in the reduction of chronic disease risk, called a

CDRRi

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard140 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard91 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 49 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)