Blood

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What structures are included in the circulatory system?

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Garbrecht - Human Anatomy BIOL 322 Lecture

116 Terms

1

What structures are included in the circulatory system?

Heart, Blood vessels, blood

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2

What tissue is blood?

liquid connective tissue

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3

What structures does the cardiovascular system include?

Heart and blood vessels

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4

The average person has how much blood?

5 liters

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5

Functions of circulatory system include:

Oxygenation, CO2, nutrient, waste, hormone, and immune cell transport, thermoregulation

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6

Hemostasis

a process to prevent and stop bleeding

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7

Main 3 functions of circulatory system:

Transportation, protection, regulation

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8

What helps coordinate wound healing and contain infection?

Inflammatory agents and cells

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9

Inflammatory agents and cells serve what purpose in blood?

 help coordinate wound healing and contain infection

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10

Immune cells are also called

Leukocytes

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11

What do leukocytes do?

clear infection

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12

How do leukocytes help clear infection?

phagocytosis, antibody production, secrete cytotoxic chemicals, form blood clots

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13

How do leukocytes form blood clots?

with clotting factors and platelets

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14

What does the circulatory system regulate?

Fluid distribution

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15

The circulatory can regulate the bodies __ level

pH

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16

What does the circulatory system use to stabilize the pH?

blood buffers

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17

Normal pH of a person?

7.4

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18

If you have alkalosis, your pH is

too high

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19

If you have acidosis, your pH is

too low

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20

The circulatory system controls body temperature by

thermoregulation

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21

The circulatory system does thermoregulation by

dilating and constricting blood vessels

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22

Blood is made of two components:

Plasma and Formed elements

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23

Plasma makes up what percentage of blood composition?

55%

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24

Formed elements make up what percentage of blood composition?

45%

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25

Plasma is the ___ ___ of blood

ground substance

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26

Plasma is 90%

water

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27

The 10% of plasma contains

nutrients, electrolytes, nitrogenous waste, gases, enzymes, hormones, plasma proteins

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28

Plasma proteins are mostly produced by

the liver

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29

Main gasses in blood

oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen

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30

Main nutrients in blood:

glucose, amino acids, lipids

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31

Main electrolytes found in blood:

Na, Ca, K, Cl

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32

What is nitrogenous waste?

byproducts of metabolism

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33

Main plasma proteins

Albumin, Globulin, Fibrinogen

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34

Albumin function:

 helps pull water into circ. system, acts as a carrier for some hormones, drugs, lipids

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35

Globulin includes many

proteins, including antibodies

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36

Fibrinogen is critical for

blood clotting

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37

3 main formed elements:

Erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes.

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38

5 Types of leukocytes

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes

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39

2 categories of Leukocytes

granulocytes and agranulocytes

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40

Hemoglobin is made from

4 polypeptides

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41

They 4 polypeptides that make up hemoglobin are

2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains

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42

Each chain of hemoglobin contains an

Iron group (Heme group)

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43

What does oxygen bind to on hemoglobin?

the heme group

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44

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to how many oxygen molecules?

4

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45

The binding of oxygen to a heme group can be either

cooperative or competitive

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46

When O2 binds to one heme this makes it easier for O2 to bind to the other 3 heme groups

Cooperative binding

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47

Other molecules can also bind to heme group (i.e, they compete).

Competitive binding

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48

What can be poisonous if they bind to a heme group instead of oxygen?

Carbon monoxide and cyanide

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49

Alternate forms of Hb include

HbA, HbA2, HbF

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50

HbA has

2 alpha and 2 beta chains

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51

HbA2 has

2 alpha and 2 Delta chains

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52

HbF function

Allows fetal blood to steal oxygen from mother's bloodstream and deliver to fetus

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53

The process of blood formation:

Hemopoiesis

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54

Body produces how many platelets per day?

400 Billion

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55

Body produces how many RBCs per day?

100-200 Billion

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56

Body produces how many WBCs per day?

10 Billion

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57

New formed elements are produced in

hemopoietic tissues

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58

Hemopoietic tissues hold what cells?

Stem cells

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59

Do mature formed elements go through mitosis?

No

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60

During development, what tissues produce formed elements?

Bone marrow, liver, spleen, thymus

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61

After birth, what structures produce formed elements?

Skull, ribs, pelvis, sternum, vertebrae, heads of long bones.

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62

Formed elements are produced by

red marrow

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63

Red marrow is what tissue?

Myeloid tissue

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64

Blood formation in Myeloid tissue is known as

Myeloid Hemopoiesis

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65

Some lymphocytes are produced or travel to

Lymphoid tissues

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66

Lymphoid tissues include

thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils

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67

What happens to formed elements in lymphoid tissues?

final maturation

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68

Maturation in lymphoid tissue is known as

lymphoid hemopoiesis

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69

T-lymphocytes or T-Cells are matured then produced from

Lymphoid tissue

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70

Platelets are fragments of

Megakartocyte

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71

Myeloid and lymphoid tissues both contain

pluripotent stem cells

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72

Pluripotent stem cells give rise to

all formed elements

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73

What is anemia?

Low RBCs or low Hb levels

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74

Anemia can lead to

hypoxia

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75

The 3 types of anemia

Hemorrhagic, hemolytic, pernicious

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76

disease caused by bleeding

Hemorrhagic anemia

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77

Disease caused by excessive RBC destruction

Hemolytic anemia

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78

Diseases caused by lack of Vit B12/Intrinsic Factor

Pernicious anemia

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79

Disease of overproduction of RBCs

Polycythemia

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80

People with Sickle Cell anemia contain a

mutated Hb gene (HbS)

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81

Sickle cell anemia requires

both Hb genes to be mutated (homozygous recessive)

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82

Sickle cell anemia carriers have

one good Hb and one mutated Hb

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83

Sickle cell carriers are immune to

malaria

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84
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85

The mutation of one nucleotide in Hb gene

glutamate → valine

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86

Complete Blood Count tests

number and condition of formed elements

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87

Hematocrit test measures

packed cell volumes (# of RBCs)

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88

Differential WBC count measures

the number of different types of WBC

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89

Surface antigen proteins determine

body type

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90

A, B, and O antigens differ in

monosaccharide attached to galactose

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91

O blood type does not have

the extra monosaccharide attached to galactose

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92

If we receive the wrong type blood

 antibodies in our plasma will bind to the foreign cells and cause them to clump together (AGGLUTINATION)

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93
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94
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95

Osmolarity determines

water distribution

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96

Osmolarity can be measured in 3 compartments:

Intracellular, interstitial, plasma

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97

Osmolarity in intracellular and interstitial space is

equal

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98

Plasma has a __ osmolarity then intracellular and interstitial spaces

higher

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99

Osmolarity of Plasma contributes to

blood volume

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100

Osmolarity technically refers to

concentration of dissolved molecules in the blood

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