AP Human Geography Unit 4 Study Guide

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Political Geography

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120 Terms

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Political Geography

Study of the political organization of the planet, constantly changing collage of countries

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2

Humans have divided their living space into:

political unites or territories

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3

How many nation-states is the world divided into?

nearly 200

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4

Landlocked

completely surrounded by land, with no coasts or seas around

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5

The modern state systems originated from ______ roots

European

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6

Government

Leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country

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7

Politics

ALL ABOUT POWER Who has the power? How'd they get the power? How do they keep the power?

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8

Politics of Place

how land space is organized according to who assets power over what area

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Territoriality

efforts to control pieces of the earth's surface for political and social ends, trying to to control a certain place

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10

Political Culture

The collection of political beliefs, values, practices and institutions that the government is based on

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11

boundaries

invisible lines that mark the extent of state's territory and the control that its leaders have

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12

Examples of boundaries

-physical -separate ethnic groups -negotiation of war

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13

Frontier

a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control

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14

Examples: of frontier control: France and ______ fought over _______

France and England fought over frontier land in NA during the French and Indian War

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15

Top two places left with neutral zone areas

Antarctica and the Arabian Peninsula

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16

Physical Boundaries

-easy to see -mountains, deserts, water

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Median-line principle

Lines made to distribute water ways when states are within 200 miles of each other

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18

Law of the Sea

(1983), standardized territorial limits at 14 land miles (12 nautical miles), gave rights to marine life within 200 miles

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19

Cultural boundaries

borders based on culture traits, like language and religion

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20

Cultural boundaries are also called

consequent boundaries

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21

Example of Cultural Boundary

1947, border between India and Pakistan, to separate Muslims from Hindus

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22

Example of Cultural Language Boundary

Europe after World War 1

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23

Balkanization

Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities

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Shatter belts

A zone of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups

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Geometric boundaries

-boundaries that follow regular, geometric patterns --boundaries of convenience drawn along lines of latitude or longitude without consideration for cultural or ethnic differences in an area

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26

Example of Geometric boundary

-North and South Korea were divided during the cold war, the 38th parallel -Vietnam split at the 17th parallel to separate the north(hanoi) from the south(saigon)

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Territorial morphology

A state's geographical shape, size, and relative location, which can determine opportunities available and challenges for the country and citizens

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Shape of states control:

length of boundary with other states, communication and conflict with neighbors, cultural identity, social unity, and how easily the rulers and rule

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29

5 shapes of states

compact, prorupted, elongated, fragmented, perforated

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30

compact state

A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions. Capitol in the middle= easy ability to rule, good communications with all regions EX: Hungary

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prorupted states

an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension, used to death a natural resource EX: Democratic Republic of Congo, Thailand

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elongated states

states with a long and narrow shape, can create communication problems since cities can be so far away EX: Chile, Gambia

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fragmented states

A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory, EX: remote islands, Indonesia; Bangladesh separates the state of West Bengal from the rest of India

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perforated states

a state that completely surrounds another EX: South Africa, apartheid separated Lesotho from the rest of the country

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35

Exclaves

a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state. EX: Cabinda separated from Africa by the Democratic Republic

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Enclaves

landlocked within another country, completely surrounded EX: Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenia demands its part of their territory when its really Azerbaijan

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37

Largest state size

Russia, over 6.5 million square miles, or over 11%

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38

Examples of microstates

Liechtenstein, Andorra, and San Morino -land space over just a few square miles

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39

T or F Large states are more likely to have homogeneous populations

False, small states are more likely to hold homogeneous populations, which decreases potential conflicts within the country

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40

T or F Size is critical to determining a country's power and stability

neither, its not critical, but it is definently a factor

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41

Landlocked states are at a disadvantage for

trade, sea resources, transportation, and communication

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42

how many landlocked states are there in the world

about 40

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43

sovereignty

ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

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44

nationalism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it, sense of unity and loyalty, also known as patriotism

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45

Internal boundaries

just like boundaries between countries, can be physical, cultural or geometric

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46

Since _______ over half of the worlds states have been involved in _____

Since World War II over half of the worlds states have been involved in border disputes

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47

Four different types of boundary disputes

Positional(definition) disputes, territorial disputes, resource(allocational) disputes, functional(operational) disputes

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48

Positional Disputes

-also known as Definitional Disputes -where they argue about where the border is EX: united states and mexico, argentina and hile

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49

Territorial Disputes

ownership of a region, a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession or control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power.

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irredentism

a form of nationalism whose goal is to regain territory lost to another state; it can lead directly to violent interstate conflicts

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Resource Disputes

-also known as allocational -disputes over natural resources, like mineral deposits, fertile farmland, rich fishing groups EX: united states and canada over fishing ground in the Atlantic ocean, iraq and kuwait with oil

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Functional Disputes

-also known as operational -when people can agree on policies that apply in a border area EX: US and mexico with the transport of people and goods across their border

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53

Nation-states first started

Europe in the early 19th century

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54

Egyptians ruled by:

Pharaohs, who were believed to be descendants from the gods

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55

Early organizations:

Ancient greece= city-states Empire: military ruler who conquered and ruled large amounts of territory=Persia, Alexander the great, Roman Empire, Han Dynasty of China Muhammad= caliphate: religious state Medieval Europe= kingdoms: relatively small areas dominated by kings Largest: Mongol Empire of the 13th Centure, ruled by a "Khan"(universal ruler) Central America=large Aztec group South America=Inca formed a short lived but powerful leader

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56

Power is organized into

states, or countries, that control what happens within their border

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57

German scholar ___ _____ defined a state as:

Max Weber, state defines who can and cannot use weapons and force

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58

Institutions

organizations where governmental power is exercised

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59

Examples of institutions

bureaucracies, legislatures, judicial systems, political parties

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60

Institutions help promote General Welfare including

health, safe transportation and effective communication systems

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61

nation

a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity

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62

Binational State

-or multinational -contains more than one nation EX: Soviet Union

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"breakaway movements"

effect of ethnic pressure that challenges the sovereignty of the government EX: Chechnya

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Stateless nations

Nations lacking a state. This complication arises from lack of fit between nations and states. (Kurds)

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65

Two important clues to understand how a state is organized

-core areas -the size/function of its capital city

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66

Core areas

where the growing of a state begins. the growing stops after they bump up against another nation-state

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periphery

outlying areas away from the core areas

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multicore states

states with more than one core area, can be very problematic EX: Nigeria, with half being Muslim and half being Christian, so they moved the capitol into the middle

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Primate city

a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy, second is no where near as big

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forward capital

Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention EX: Japan moving Tokya, Brazil moving Brasília

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71

Electoral process

the process of holding an election, to select a leader EX: United States voting for their president

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72

Geographic scale info

national, regional, and local

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73

Electoral geography

The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.

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74

US has _____ legislative districts, with each electing one representative to the lower house of the legislature- the ______________

435, House of Representatives

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75

T or F Boundaries are redrawn every 5 years to make sure the representation is fair

False, every TEN years the boundaries are redrawn

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76

Gerrymandering

Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.

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77

_______ first started gerrymandering in _______ and had a _______ shaped district to win the election of a _________ in the __ century

Eldrige Gerry first started gerrymandering in Massachusetts and had a salamander shaped district to win the elation of a Republican in the 19th century

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78

Minority/Majority districting

Rearranging districts to allow a minority representative to be elected -caused peoplle to think they were discriminating against the majority white in North Carolina

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79

18th century European philosophers came up with the idea of a modern state, which says:

people awe allegiance to a state and the people it represents rather than its leader -went to the French Revolution in 1789, then Western Europe during the 19th century

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80

colonies

dependent areas, first to be created that were given boundaries where non head been before -Mughal in India, Aztecs in Central America, Manchu in China

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81

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. -characterized the political landscape during the 19th and early 20th century

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82

When colonies first gained their independence their biggest problem was...

their states' boundaries ignored cultural differences among populations, then the idea of nation-states came along during the middle of the 20th century

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83

A well-integrated states consist of

-a stable, clearly bounded territory -an effective administrative framework -productive core area -influential capitol city

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84

Unitary System

where all the decisions are made by one central geographic place EX: Europe

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85

Confederal System

spreads the power among many sub-unites(like states), and has a weak central government EX: Switzerland, US under the Confederate States of America and the Articles of Confederation

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86

Federal System

divides the power between the central government and the sub-units(like states) EX: United States, Canada, Australia

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87

Devolution

-transfer of power from the central government to the sub-governments -transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments

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88

Supranational organizations

cooperating groups of nations that operate on either a regional or international level

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89

Centripetal force

binds people of a nation together and gives it strength, unites them -flags, rituals, holidays, schools, armed forces, religion

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Centrifugal force

the forces that divide people and countries -bad government, USSR, different languages or customs, devolution, ethnonationalism

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Separatist movements

A movement advocating separation from government or another large organization.

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Ethnic group

shares a well-developed sense of belonging, based on unique mixture of language, religion, and customs

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Ethnonationalism

When ethnic groups see themselves as an individual nation and believe that they deserve their own state. -Quebec

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94

Devolution occurs from

Ethnic forces, Economic forces, and spatial forces

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95

Economic forces

when there are economic differences in a country pulling it apart -Italy, north and south so different

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Spatial Forces

-mostly occurs on the margins of states EX: US claims Puerto Rico , yet its separated by the water in between

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97

Geopolitics

the study of the relationship between geography and politics

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98

Friedrich Ratzel

German who originated geopolitical theory. Pioneered environmental determinism. Stated that there are 7 laws of state growth

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99

heartland theory

'pivot area' holds the resources to dominate the globe (Eurasia)

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100

Rimland Theory

challenged heartland theory, Spykman said Eurasian rim held the key to global power, not its heart

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