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type A personality characteristics

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type A personality characteristics

  1. prone to suffer from stress

  2. works more fast

  3. competitive

  4. likes to be in control

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type B personality characteristics

  1. less likely to suffer from stress

  2. works more slowly

  3. non-competitive

  4. does not like to be in control

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stable personality trait

someone who does not swing from one emotion to another but is usually constant in emotional behaviour

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unstable (neurotic) personality trait

someone who is highly anxious and has unpredictable behaviour so makes mistakes often

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extroversion personality

person who seeks social situations and likes excitement but lacks concentration

may show leadership characteristics

eg rugby player makes crowd loud

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introversion personality

person who des not seek social situations but likes peace and quiet

god at concentrating

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positives and negatives of trait theory

pos: if theory is correct, personality can be predicted

some evidence that personality is influenced by genetics

neg: may be deemed as inaccurate

doesn’t account for he personality changes depending on the situation

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social learning theory

we learn our personality from other people

usually people we hold high self esteem for eg parents, coaches, role models

behaviour changes depending on the situation

personality learned by DARRM

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positives and negatives of SLT

pos: bobo doll experiment adds validity

neg: may be viewed as too simplistic as ignores genetics

if theory was true, all would have the sae personality

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interactionist theory of personality

combines trait and SLT as they both have a role in personality

suggests we base behaviour on inherited traits that we adapt o the situation we are in

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define attitude

predisposition to act in particular way towards something or someone in a persons environment

an enduring evaluation/pattern of beahviour

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positive attitudes are formed from

  1. belief in the benefits in sport - lose weight if go gym

  2. enjoyable experiences in sport - have fun

  3. being good at a particular sport - winning race

  4. using sport as a stress release - fun

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negative attitudes in sport

  1. not believing in the benefits of sport

  2. bad past experience eg injury

  3. lack of ability

  4. fear of taking art in sport

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cognitive component of attitude

what we know about and believe about the attitudes object

eg going to the gym 3 times a week improves quality of life

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affective component of attitude

consists of the feelings of an emotional response towards an attitude towards an object

eg training is fun and i enjoy it

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behavioural component of attitude

how a person acts towards an attitude object

eg joining a fitness club to follow an organised fitness program

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method of changing attitude: cognitive dissonance theory

individual is likely to be consistent in their triadic model and how they feel about it so

can be uncomfortable when a person has contradictory feelings about someone or something which may lead them to change their attitude

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cognitive dissonance theory example

a person wishes o perform at high standard, but dies not want to dedicate the time and effort

rugby player thinks gymnastics is pathetic but the coach told them they need to take part to become a better rugby player

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methods of changing attitudes: persuasive communication

  1. persuader - is the person attempting the change and is of high status/significance

  2. the message - is the quality of the message the persuader is giving and is accurate eg go to gym and you lose weight

  3. the receiver - the persons attitude that the persuader is trying to change eg easier if they want to change

  4. the situation - attitudes are more easily change if the persuader is present

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define motivation

internal mechanisms ad external stimuli that arouse and direct our behaviour

physiological drive to succeed

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3 key aspects of motivation

  1. our inner drive to achieve the goal

  2. external pressure and rewards we perceive

  3. intensity and the direction of our behaviour

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intrinsic motivation

comes from within the performer eg wanting to complete a marathon for fun

includes feelings of fun, satisfaction and enjoyment

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positives and negatives of intrinsic motivation

pos: may encourage lifelong participation

more sufficient eg doesn’t need anyone else t be present

neg: intrinsic motivators may disappear

cognitive learner may find it hard to enjoy

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extrinsic motivation

comes from sources outside of performer eg money, prize, trophy

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positives and negatives of extrinsic motivation

pos: very effective way to make children start a sport

may raise confidence

neg: may not be as valuable

may lose effect

may become dependant

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energised state of readiness before performing a task

can be semantic - experiences physiologically eg sweating, yawning

or cognitive - experienced by the mind eg worry, confusion, loss of confidence

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drive theory

proportional linear relationship between performance and arousal

more highly aroused, higher the performance level

dominant response is likely to emerge when performer experience increase in arousal

gross and simple skills easy to perform when highly aroused

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drive theory positives and negatives

pos: simple to understand

advantages for autonomous performer

neg: does not explain how novices perform badly under high arousal levels

dominant response ma be incorrect

gross skills may be better performed under low arousal

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inverted U theory

as arousal level increases, s does performance level until a certain point, where performance level gradually decreases eg badminton player misses easy shot

high levels of arousal needed by ;

  1. extroverts

  2. gross skills

  3. autonomous players

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inverted U positives and negatives

pos: more realistic than drive

dis: unrealistic, as performance level does not gradually decrease

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catastrophe theory

as arousal increases, so does performance level, until a point where a catastrophe occurs - sudden drop in performance

due to cognitive and somatic anxiety increasing

eg player plays well , but when pints get close, they play badly

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catastrophe theory positive and negatives

pos: most realistic

neg: not all experience a catastrophe

bit vague

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negative aspect of experiencing stress, and can be caused by worry , apprehension or fear of failure

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trait anxiety

perceive situations as threatening

high trait anxiety in any situation

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state anxiety

occurs in a particular situation

can change depending on the situation

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define zone of optimal functioning

when performers level of arousal/anxiety is just right

they will give the best performance

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performers are described as what when in the zone of optimal functioning

  1. relaxed

  2. confident

  3. completely focused

  4. being in control

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define aggression

intent to harm or injure outside the rules of the event

eg boxer channels inner aggression

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define assertion

forceful behaviour within the laws of the event

eg rugby tackle

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features of aggression

  1. is a behaviour- wanting to hit someone isn’t aggression, but hitting them is

  2. involves harm - to another person

  3. involves intent - harm is not dine accidentally

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instinct theory of aggression

suggests aggression is inherited and innate

violence lies within everyone they have the basic instinct to dominant

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positives and negatives of instinct theory

pos: can be natural instinct to be aggressive

aggression could be hard to control

you can feel a release of aggression - catharsis

neg: too simplistic

aggression is often learned

not everyone is aggressive

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social learning theory of aggression

aggression is learned by observation and coping and reinforced by social acceptance

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positives and negatives of SLT of aggression

pos: positive reinforcement

neg: not everyone has role models

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frustration aggressive hypothesis of aggression

frustration will always lead to aggression

any blocks of gaols increases individual’s drive, which increases frustration and aggression

aggression is followed by success which leads to catharsis or punishment which leads to frustration

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what increases the chmace of aggression from occuring

  1. if the individual is close to achieving their goal

  2. if the blocking of the goal is unfair

  3. frustration is caused deliberately

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positives and negatives of frustration aggression theory

pos: leads to catharsis if successful


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aggressive cue hypothesis

for aggression to occur, stimuli must be present

frustration causes readiness for aggression

frustration causes anger and this creates readiness for aggression

eg defender lets player go past him and they score so they get mad

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positives and negatives of aggressive cute hypothesis

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define social facilitation

when the crowd has a positive impact on performance eg crowd cheering

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define social inhibition

when the crowd has a negative effect on performance eg crowd jeering

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factors affecting social inhibition and facilitation

  1. size of audience

  2. proximity if audience

  3. knowledge of audience

  4. personality of performer

  5. status of performance

  6. home or away

  7. type of skill - gross/fine

  8. level of experience

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define evaluation apprehension

apprehension when being evaluated

increases arousal levels which increases HR

eg football scout

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strategies to reduce social inhibition

  1. relaxation techniques

  2. selective attention to block out audience

  3. training with an audience present

  4. overlearn skills so they become automatic

  5. lowering importance of event

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define group

collection of people who share similar goals and interact with one another

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forming stage

high dependence on leader for guidance

testing relationships and developing roles

very little agreement on goals

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storming stage

heightened tension as group determines roles and decisions

rebels emerge against leader and status begins

team members are establishing

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norming stage

behavioural standards are stabilized

cooperation takes place

roles established through group agreement

respect for leader

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performing stage

more strategies ad clear vision

group work as a unit with primary goal being group success

no interference from leader

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team cohesion Festinger 1963

the total field of forces that act on members to remain in the group

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according to Garron 1980, cohesion has two dimensions which are

  1. group integration - how the individuals in the group feel about the group as a whole

  2. individual interaction to the group - how attracted to individuals are to the group

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Steiner’s model of group effectiveness equation

actual productivity = potential productivity -losses due to faulty processes

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faulty process 1 - coordination problems/ Ringelman effect

if coordination and timing of team members do not match, team strategies will suffer eg ill timed movements

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faulty process 2 - motivational problems/ social loafing

when individual in team experiences motivational loss

negative effect on group cohesion

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how too reduce social loafing

increasing peer pressure

ensuring individuals recognise goals

using extrinsic motivation

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goal setting

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why is goal setting setting important to performance

  1. can increases confidence

  2. measure progress

  3. encourages new strategies

  4. directs attention of the performer onto required task

  5. increases motivation

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S - specificity

goals must be clear and specific

eg footballer improving their target practice

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M - measurable

must be able to measure goals to see if you achieved them

eg runner running for a fixed time

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A - achievable

must be realistic or achievable to the performer

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R - recorded

has to be recorded so progression is monitored

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T - time phased

goals should be split into short term goals leading to long term

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different types of goals

  1. performance goals - eg to achieve a certain time, such as 100min under 10 secs

  2. progress-ordinated goals - eg to ensure front crawl arm technique is correct

  3. outcome goals - eg to win a race

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internal stable

ability - we were more skilful

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external stable

task difficulty eg opposition are world champions

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internal unstable

effort eg we tried hard

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eternal unstable

luck eg court was slippy

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what are the locus of causality factors

internal and external

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self serving bias

persons tendency to attribute their failure to external factors and their success to internal eg we won because we tried harder - also leads to satisfaction

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learned helplessness

belief that failure is inevitable and that the individual has no control of the factors that cause failure

can be specific or global

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mastery orientation

view that an individual will be motivated by becoming an expert in skill development

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what do low achievers attribute failures to

internal factors eg im bad

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what do low achivers attribute success to

external factors eg luck

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reasons for attributing success to internal factors

  1. raise confidence and pride

  2. develop mastery orientation

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reasons to attribute failure to external factors

  1. sustain confidence, prevents shame

  2. prevent learned helplessness

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what should teacher or coach attribute failure to

  1. lack of consistency

  2. bad tactical decisions

  3. poor fitness level

  4. lack of experience

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sport confidence definition

belief an individual possess about their ability to be successful in sport

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what does levels of sport confidence affect

  1. participation - low level = more shy and avoidant

  2. performance - high levels = try harder and maintain effort

  3. self esteem - high levels = high levels ensures they work hard to maintain ability

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self efficacy definition

belief you will succeed in a specific sporting situation

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vealey’s model of sporting confidence

  1. sporting context

  2. S-C trait and competitive situation

  3. S-C state

  4. behavioural response

  5. subjective outcome

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sporting context component

the sporting situation a performer is in eg penalty kick in football

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S-C trait component

everyone has existing level of sporting confidence eg high levels in football

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competitive situation component

everyone has existing level of competitiveness eg player may enjoy highly competitive situations

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S-C state component

the confidence that can be shown in a specific situation in sport

S-C state = (S-C state) + (competitive orientation)

eg experienced penalty taker has been successful in same situation many times - high levels of S-C state so likely to be successful

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behavioural response component

response to the situation eg penalty scored or not scored

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subjective outcome component

emotion felt towards behavioural response - affect future S-C trait and competitive ordination eg satisfaction if penalty scored

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banduras self efficacy depends on four types of information which are

  1. performance accomplishments - eg passed experiences raise or lower self efficacy

  2. vicarious experiences - eg watching others similar age means you can do it too

  3. verbal persuasion - eg encouragement from coach

  4. emotional arousal - eg if arousal is too high, state anxiety is developed which leads to low self efficacy

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what do the 4 types of information in banduras self efficacy theory lead to

self efficacy expectation/ judgement eg





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what do the self efficacy expectations/ judgements lead to

behaviour/ performance

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effective leadership characteristics

  1. good communication

  2. high motivation

  3. clear goal or vision

  4. charisma

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