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components of microscope

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142 Terms

1

components of microscope

base, arm, stage, objectives, nosepiece, course and fine adjustment knobs, nosepiece

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2

4x lens name

scanning lense, 40x total mag (4*10)

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3

10x lens name

low power lens, 100x total mag (10*10)

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4

40x lens name

high power lens, 400x total mag (40*10)

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5

100x lens name

oil immersion lens, 1000x total mag (100*10)

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6

total magnification

objective lens * 10x (ocular lens)

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7

total magnification of dissecting microscope

just what says on dial

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8

refraction and 100x lens

not enough light hits 100x lens b/c small, so use immersion oil b/c same refractive index as slide so light not refracted away from lens

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9

parfocality

specimen remains in focus when switch between objectives

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10

dissecting microscope

used for low magnification of plate cultures, live specimens, total mag 7x to 30x

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11

100x resolution compared to naked eye

100x has greater resolution

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12

advantage of unstained specimen

can see moving, colors and textures

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13

disadvantage of unstained specimen

hard to see and find on slide

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14

how to slow specimen down without killing

add drop of Protoslo before adding specimen

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15

where dispose pathogenic or invasive material

biohazard box

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16

where dispose caustic chemicals

liquid chemical waste

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17

where dispose uncontaminated broken glass

uncontaminated broken glass

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18

where dispose contaminated broken glass and coverslips

biohazard box

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19

hypothesis

preliminary explanation of phenomenon, broad based on question

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20

prediction

narrow, specific, what think results of experiment will be (based on experimental design)

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21

replication within an experiment

multiple study subjects, each sample = replicate, large = better = protect against outliers

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22

replication of an experiment

write exp. design clearly so others can repeat, results must also be replicable

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23

osmosis positive control

substance in bag

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24

osmosis negative control

substance in beaker

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25

glucose diffusion test

reducing sugar, add Benedict's solution and sit in hot water bath until change color, blue = no reducing sugar, green = some red. sugar, orange = lots red. sugar

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26

NaCl diffusion test

add silver nitrate, see if precipitate

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27

starch test

add iodine, see if turn purple

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28

iodine test

add starch, see if turn purple

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29

net effect of diffusion

movement of molec. from high to low conc

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30

what happens at equilibrium

molecules continue to move, but movement not affect overall concentration

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31

rate of diffusion

constant x 1/(MW)^.5

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32

hypotonic

less solute outside cell

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33

hypertonic

more solute outside cell

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34

isotonic

conc. equal inside and outside membrane, no change in volume

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35

do plant cells burst

no, have cell wall

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36

crenation

animal cells shrink and crinkle

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37

plasmolysis

plant cells shrink away from cell wall but maintain original external shape

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38

why respond same in 300mM soln glucose and 150mM soln NaCl

same total number of solutes

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39

what is potato like in hypotonic

hard, turgic, stiff

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40

what is potato like in hypertonic

soft, bendy

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41

what can move through membrane

everything except starch (salt, iodine, sugar, water)

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42

do osmosis and diffusion happen at same time

yes

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43

glucose active or passive in blood

active, not want any in blood

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44

glucose active or passive in epithelial cells

passive, flow through on way to something else

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45

why does reaction slow down after a few minutes

all enzymes saturated

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46

how does activity change when inc. substrate

plateaus because reach saturation

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47

how does activity change when inc. enzyme

continue to inc, no upper limit, more active sites

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48

how does pH affect enzyme

affect folding and function and activity at active site

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49

what determines optimal pH and temperature

optimal cellular environment of where enzyme needs to operate in cell

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50

how paper chrom. works

non polar solute, so non polar stays in solution longer and makes all the way up paper while polar falls out of solution earlier on page

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51

order of polarity

np ‒ carotene, xanthophyll, chlor. a, chlor. b ‒ polar, depends on number of O (h-bond acceptor)

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52

how know where photosynthesis occurs in starch exp

leaves grown in light have starch

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53

is light necessary for starch synthesis

yes

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54

where is starch made

outside edges of leaves, in thylakoid

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55

primary literature

written by scientist who conducted study

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56

secondary literature

summary of primary literature, review article (!)

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57

animal cell cytokinesis

form cleavage furrow via actin and myosin contraction that pinches cell

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58

plant cell cytokinesis

make cell plate from vesicles

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59

longest phase of cell cycle

interphase

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60

longest phase of mitosis

prophase

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61

shortest phase of mitosis

anaphase

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62

why many possible outcomes of meiosis

crossing over, independent assortment

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63

role of meiosis

generate gametes, haploid cells

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64

why aneuploidy

nondisjunction in anaphase

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65

are there genetic differences in asexually reproducing organism

yes because mutation

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66

advantage of mitosis

cell repairment, quicker, less energy

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67

disadvantage of mitosis

lack of genetic diversity, unregulated leading to mutations

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68

difference between meiosis different than mitosis

two divisions, 4 haploid daughter cells, crossing over, genetically unique daughter cells, make gametes, homologous chromosomes

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69

meoisis advantage

genetic diversity, sexual reproduction

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70

meiosis disadvantage

slower, more energy

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71

null hypothesis

nothing significant is expected to happen so results are due to random change

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72

alternative hypothesis

something significant is expected to happen, results not due to random chance

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73

genotype

alleles

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74

phenotype

physical expression of genotype

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75

calculate chi-squared

d = b – e, chi^2 = ∑(d^2/e)

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76

meaning of chi-squared value

larger = more likely to reject null hypothesis

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77

fail to reject null hypothesis

means due to random change

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78

Monohybrid cross offspring ratio

3:1 ratio

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79

Dihybrid cross offspring ratio

9:3:3:1 ratio

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80

small deviation meaning

difference due to random chance

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81

agglutination

antibodies react to target antigen, form precipitate

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82

what A antiserum contains

antibodies to type A antigen

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83

how generate A antiserum

from type B blood plasma

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84

what two things influence phenotype

genes and environment

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85

antigens on type A RBC

A antigen

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86

antigens on type B RBC

B antigen

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87

antigens on type AB RBC

both A and B antigens

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88

antigens on type O RBC

none

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89

antibodies in type A plasma

anti-B antibodies

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90

antibodies in type B plasma

anti-A antibodies

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91

antibodies in type AB plasma

none

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92

antibodies in type O plasma

anti-A and anti-B antibodies

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93

who can type O ppl donate to

everyone

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94

who can type O people receive from

only type O

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95

who can type AB give to

none

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96

who can type AB people receive from

everyone

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97

what is an antigen

proteins on surface of cell, so identify RBC

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98

what is an antibody

in plasma, recognize foreign material

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99

what is antiserum

blood serum, contains antibodies, from plasma

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100

why mother needs RhoGAM

if mother is Rh-, contain some anti-D antibody that act against Rh+ antigens that release after rupture of placenta and release of baby Rh+ blood, prevents mother from generating harmful secondary immune response

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