biology digestion, enzymes and ecology

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75 Terms

1

mouth

food is chewed and mixed with saliva containing amylase

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2

oesophagus

the tube that takes food to the stomach

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3

liver

stores bile which emulsifies fats and neutralises stomach acid

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4

pancreas

makes all three enzymes

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5

stomach

food is mixed with hcl acid, which kills pathogens, and also 3 enzymes

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6

large intestine

water is absorbed here

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7

small intestine

enzymes break down the food. small soluble molecules can be absorbed into bloodstream

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8

rectum

waste is stored here

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9

anus

muscle that opens and closes to let faeces out

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10

enzymes

enzymes are biological catalysts which speed up the rate of a reaction without being used up or changed in the process

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11

what are enzymes made up of

large proteins molecules made up of chains of amino acids

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12

how do the chains of amino acids make the enzyme up

chains of amino acids fold and form a specific 3d shape with region called the active site

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13

factors that affect enzyme action

temperature, pH,

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14

how does temperature affect enzyme action (2 bullet points)

  • temp increase= more kinetic energy so more likely to collide,

  • more kinetic energy = particles more likely to collide successfully so faster rate of reaction

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15

how does pH affect enzyme action (4 bullet points)

  • different enzymes have different optimum - pH,

  • chemical bonds + forces hold active site together in specific shape

  • pH change weakens forces, changing the shape of the active site

  • enzyme becomes denatured

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16

where is amylase made and used?

  • made: pancreas, salivary gland

  • used: small intestine, mouth

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17

what does amylase break down?

breaks the chemical bonds between the glucose molecules in each carbohydrate chain

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18

where is protease made and used?

  • made: stomach, pancreas, small intestine

  • used: stomach, small intestine

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19

what does protease break down?

the chemical bonds between chains of amino acids

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20

where is lipase made and used?

  • made: pancreas, small intestine

  • used: stomach, small intestine

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21

what does lipase break down

lipase breaks down lipids (fats) to glycerol and fatty acids

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22

what are the products of digestion used for?

to make new carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. some glucose is used in respiration

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23

carbohydrates

  • provide us with fuel

  • made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

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24

simple carbohydrates ( 2 bullet points)

  • made of one or two sugar molecules

  • monosaccharides+ disaccharides

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25

monosaccharides

glucose fructose and galactose

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26

disaccharides

maltose, lactose and sucrose

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27

complex carbohydrates (2 bullet points)

  • larger molecules, many glucose molecules joined together

  • starch, glycogen and cellulose

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28

starch

straight chain of glucose

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29

cellulose

many crosslinks to make it strong

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30

glycogen

branched chains of glucose

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31

uses of carbohydrate ( 3 bullet points)

  • respiration- to release energy

  • energy storage (starch in plants, glycose in humans)

  • structural (cellulose for plant cell walls

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32

test for glucose ( 3 bullet points)

benedicts reagent

  • add 2ml of solution to test tube and 1ml of benedict reagent

  • place in water bath of temp >80oC

  • if glucose present will go blue→ brick red

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33

test for starch (3 bullet points)

iodine solution

  • add 2 drops of solution to 2 dimples in tile

  • add drop of solution

  • if starch is present it will go yellow orange→ blue black

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34

required practical 5 ( effect of pH on amylase enzyme) (5 bullet points)

  • 1 drop iodine solution in all of 2 dimple tiles

  • 3cm³ starch, 2cm³ pH

  • add 1cm³ amylase and start stop clock

  • every 10s use stirring rod to transfer solution to a dimple

  • do until iodine solution stops turning blue-black and stays yellow

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35

emulsion test for lipids (4 bullet points)

  • put food solution in test tube+ label

  • put in ethanol

  • put in a bung + shake vigorously

  • cloudy liquid- fat present

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36

biuret test for proteins (3 bullet points)

  • food solution in test tube + label

  • add biuret solution + shake gently

  • blue→ purple=positive test

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37

abiotic factors

non-living parts of the environment that influence the number and distribution of organisms in a community

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38

biotic factors

living organisms that influence the number and distribution of organisms in a community

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39

habitat

where an organism lives

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40

individual

a living thing, carries out MRS GREN. single member of species

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41

population

a group of organisms of the same species interacting with each other in the same place at the same time

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42

community

a group of interdependent populations of different species living and interacting in the same area

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43

ecosystem

a community of living organisms interacting with the non-living parts of their environment

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44

biotic factors (5 bullet points)

  • availability of food,

  • numbers of predator population,

  • new predators,

  • new competitor species,

  • new disease organism,

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45

abiotic factors ( 8 bullet points)

  • availability of water

  • availability of carbon dioxide

  • availability of oxygen in water,

  • temperature,

  • soil mineral content + soil pH,

  • light intensity,

  • wind intensity + direction,

  • natural disaster

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46

interdependance

the network of relationships in between different organisms in a community for example each species depends on other species for food, shelter, pollination, seed dispersal etc

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47

stable community

all the species and environmental factors are in balance so population sizes remain relatively constant e.g. coral reef, tropical rainforest

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48

animals compete for

food, territory, mates

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49

why do animals compete for food ( 3 bullet points)

  • herbivores feed on some kind of plant

  • carnivores compete for prey

  • prey animals compete to not get caught

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50

how/why do animals compete for territory (4 bullet points)

  • place to build nest,

  • find food

  • , reproduce

  • compete for best spaces

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51

how/why do animals compete for mates (2 bullet points)

  • compete by fighting

  • adaptations to stand out e.g bright feathers

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52

what do plants compete for (4 bullet points)

  • light,

  • water,

  • nutrients,

  • space

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53

why do plants compete for light + water

for photosynthesis to make food

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54

food chain + food webs

show feeding relationships in an ecosystem.

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55

trophic level

a stage of a food chain, a feeding level

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56

producer (4 bullet points)

  • level 1 ,

  • makes glucose by photosynthesis,

  • plant or algae,

  • producers of all biomass on earth

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57

primary consumer

level 2, herbivore

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58

secondary consumer

level 3, carnivore that eats herbivore

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59

tertiary consumer

level 4 carnivore

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60

apex predator

carnivores with no predators, at the top of the food chain

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61

biomass

the dry mass of an organism; the mass of an organism after all water is removed

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62

predator- prey cycle. ( 5 bullet points)

  • plenty of food = prey numbers increase

  • prey numbers increase = predator numbers increase

  • predator numbers increase= prey numbers fall

  • prey numbers fall= predator numbers fall

  • repeat

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63

light intensity matters bc…

plants need light

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64

temperature matter bc..

limiting factor in photosynthesis

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65

moisture levels matter bc….

plants + animals need water

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66

soil pH + mineral content matter bc….

affects what can grow + rate of decay

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67

wind intensity + direction matter bc

plants will need to transpire fast + shape of trees + landscape

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68

oxygen availability matters bc….

in water for fish

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69

CO2 availability matters bc….

plants need for photosynthesis

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70

food availability matters bc….

organisms breed w/ more food

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71

new pathogens matter bc…..

  • organisms have no resistance eg leaf miner in horse chestnut trees

  • get wiped out

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72

new predators matter bc…

  • organism have no defences so get wiped out

  • eg dodo bird with introduction of pigs + monkeys

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73

new competitor species matter bc…

  • species cant compete for food so numbers get too low for breeding

  • eg grey squirrels an red squirrels

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74

extremophiles (4 bullet points)

  • live in difficult conditions (high/low pH/temp

  • lots are microorganisms like bacteria living in deep sea vents

  • enzymes have extreme optimum pH/temp

  • useful for scientists

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75

how to draw pyramid of biomass (5 bullet points)

  • wedding cake shape

  • bars same height

  • labelled axis

  • 1% of light on earth is used

  • 10% of biomass is transferred between levels

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