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112 Terms

1

Cystic

pertaining to the bladder

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2

Renal

pertaining to the kidney

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3

Ureteral

pertaining to the ureter

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4

Urethral

pertaining to urethra

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5

Urinary

pertaining to the urine

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6

Nephrology

Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the kidney; physician is a nephrologist

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7

urology

Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the urinary system (and male reproductive system); physician is a urologist

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8

Anuria

Complete suppression of urine formed by the kidneys and a complete lack of urine excretion

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9

Azotemia

Accumulation of nitrogenous waste in bloodstream; occurs when the kidney fails to filter these wastes from the blood

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10

Bacteriuria

Presence of bacteria in the urine

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11

Calculus

Stone formed within an organ by accumulation of mineral salts; found in kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, or urethra; plural is calculi

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12

Cystalgia

Urinary bladder pain

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13

Cystolith

bladder stone

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14

Cystorrhagia

Abnormal bleeding from the urinary bladder

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15

Diuresis

Increased formation and excretion of urine

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16

Dysuria

Difficult or painful urination

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17

Enuresis

Involuntary discharge of urine after age by which bladder control should have been established; usually occurs by age five; nocturnal enuresis refers to bed-wetting at night

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18

Frequency

Greater-than-normal occurrence in urge to urinate, without increase in total daily volume of urine; frequency is indication of inflammation of bladder or urethra

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19

Glycosuria

Presence of sugar in the urine

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20

Hematuria

Presence of blood in urine

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21

Hesitancy

Decrease in force of urine stream, often with difficulty initiating flow; often a symptom of blockage along the urethra, such as enlarged prostate gland

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22

Ketonuria

Presence of ketones in urine; occurs when body burns fat instead of glucose for energy, such as in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus Kidney stone

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23

Nephrolith

kidney stone

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24

Nephromalacia

kidney is abnormally soft

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25

Nephromegaly

kidney is enlarged

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26

Nephrosclerosis

kidney tissue had become hardened

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27

Nocturia

having to urinate frequently during the night

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28

Oliguria

producing too little urine

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29

Polyuria

producing unusually large volume of urine

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30

Proteinuria

presence of protein in urine

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31

Pyuria

presence of pus in urine

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32

Renal colic

pain caused by kidney stone; can be excruciating pain and generally requires medical treatment

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33

Stricture

narrowing of passageway in the urinary system

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34

Uremia

accumulating of waste products (especially nitrogenous waste) in bloodstream; associated with renal failure

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35

Ureterectasis

ureter is stretched out or dilated

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36

Ureterolith

stone in the ureter

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37

Ureterostenosis

ureter has become narrow

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38

Urethralgia

urethral pain

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39

Urethrorrhagia

abnormal bleeding from the urethra

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40

Urethrostenosis

urethra has become narrow

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41

Urgency

feeling need to urinate immediately

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42

Urinary incontinence

involuntary release of urine; in some patients, indwelling catheter is inserted into the bladder for continuous urine drainage

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43

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

Damage to and potential death of the renal tubules due to presence of toxins in urine or to ischemia; results in oliguria

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44

Diabetic nephropathy

Accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus

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45

Glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the kidney (primarily of the glomerulus); since the glomerular membrane is inflamed, it becomes more permeable and will allow protein and blood cells to enter the filtrate.

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46

Hydronephrosis

Distention of the renal pelvis due to urine collecting in the kidney; often result of obstruction of a ureter

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47

Nephritis

Kidney inflammation

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48

Nephrolithiasis

Presence of calculi in the kidney; usually begins with solidification of salts present in urine

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49

Nephroma

Kidney tumor

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50

Nephropathy

General term describing presence of kidney disease

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51

Nephroptosis

Downward displacement of the kidney out of its normal location; commonly called a floating kidney

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52

Nephrotic syndrome (NS)

Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in urine, proteinuria, and corresponding decrease in protein in bloodstream; also called nephrosis

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53

Polycystic kidneys

Formation of multiple cysts (pouches) within kidney tissue; results in destruction of normal kidney tissue and uremia

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54

Pyelitis

renal pelvis inflammation

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55

Pyelonephritis

Inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney; one of most common types of kidney disease; may be result of lower urinary tract infection that moved up to the kidney by way of the ureter; large quantities of white blood cells and bacteria in urine are possible; blood (hematuria) may even be present in urine in this condition; can occur with any untreated or persistent case of cystitis

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56

Renal cell carcinoma

Cancerous tumor that arises from kidney tubule cells

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57

Renal failure

Inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood, resulting in uremia; may be acute or chronic; major reason for patient being placed on dialysis

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58

Wilms’ tumor (VILMZ)

Malignant kidney tumor found most often in children; also called nephroblastoma

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59

Bladder cancer

Cancerous tumor that arises from cells lining the bladder; major sign is hematuria

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60

Bladder neck obstruction (BNO)

Blockage of the bladder outlet; often caused by enlarged prostate gland in males

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61

Cystitis

Urinary bladder inflammation

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62

Cystocele

Protrusion (or herniation) of the urinary bladder into wall of the vagina

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63

Interstitial cystitis

Disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder; most commonly seen in middle-aged women

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64

Neurogenic bladder

Loss of nervous control that leads to reten-tion; may be caused by spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis

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65

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Infection, usually from bacteria, of any organ of the urinary system; most often begins with cystitis and may ascend into ureters and kidneys; most common in women because of shorter urethra

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66

ACR-albumin/creatinine ratio

Screening test for persons at risk (e.g., diabet-ics) for developing kidney disease; measures amount of albumin and creatinine in urine; there is a high level of albumin in the blood, but almost none is excreted in urine; creati-nine, a waste product of muscle metabolism, is excreted into urine at a relatively constant rate; if ratio of these two substances increases, it is an early warning sign of kidney disease

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67

BUN-blood urea nitrogen

Blood test to measure kidney function by level of nitrogenous waste (urea) in the blood

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68

CC-clean catch specimen

Urine sample obtained after cleaning off urinary opening and catching or collecting a urine sample in midstream (halfway through urination process) to minimize contamination from genitalia

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69

Creatinine clearance

Test of kidney function; creatinine is a waste product cleared from bloodstream by the kidneys; for this test, urine is collected for 24 hours, and amount of creatinine in urine is com. pared to amount of creatinine that remains in bloodstream

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70

eGFR- estimated glomerular filtration rate

Test to measure kidney function; measures level of creatinine, a waste product of muscle metab-olism, in urine and uses this in a formula that estimates how well glomeruli are filtering water out of bloodstream

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71

U/A, UA- Urinalysis

Laboratory test consisting of physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine

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72

Urine culture and sensitivity

Laboratory test of urine for bacterial infection; attempt to grow bacteria on culture medium in order to identify it and determine to which antibiotics it is sensitive

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73

Urinometer

Instrument to measure specific gravity of urine; part of urinalysis

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74

Cystogram

x-ray record of urinary bladder

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75

Cystography

Process of instilling contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on X-ray

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76

EU-excretory urography

Injecting dye into bloodstream and then taking X-ray to trace action of the kidney as it excretes dye in the urine

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77

IVP-intravenous pyelography

Diagnostic X-ray procedure in which dye is injected into a vein and then X-rays are taken to visualize the renal pelvis as dye is removed by the kidney

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78

KUB-kidneys, ureters, bladder

X-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye; also called flat-plate abdomen

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79

Nephrogram

X-ray record of the kidney

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80

Pyelogram

X-ray record of the renal pelvis

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81

RP-retrograde pyelography

Diagnostic X-ray procedure in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis

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82

VCUG- Voiding cystourethrography

X-ray taken to visualize the urethra while patient is voiding after contrast dye is placed in the bladder

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83

Cystoscope

Instrument used to visually examine inside of the urinary bladder

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84

Cystoscopy

Visual examination of the urinary bladder using instrument called cystoscope

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85

Urethroscope

Instrument to visually examine inside of the urethra

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86

catheterization

Insertion of tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye

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87

ESWL-extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

Use of ultrasound waves from outside the body to break up stones; process does not require invasive surgery

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88

HD hemodialysis

Use of artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products; use of this technique in patients who have defective kidneys is lifesaving

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89

Peritoneal dialysis

Removal of toxic waste substances from body by placing warm, chemically balanced solutions into peritoneal cavity; wastes are filtered out of blood across peritoneum; used in treating renal failure and certain poisonings

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90

Cystectomy

surgical removal of urinary bladder

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91

Cystopexy

surgical fixation of the urinary bladder; performed to correct cystocele

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92

Cystoplasty

To repair a defect in the urinary bladder by surgical means

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93

Cystostomy

To surgically create opening into the urinary bladder through the abdominal wall

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94

Cystotomy

to cut into the urinary bladder

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95

Lithotomy

to cut into an organ for purpose of removing a stone

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96

Lithotripsy

Physical destruction of a stone in urinary system by crushing or sound waves

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97

Meatotomy

To cut into the meatus in order to enlarge opening of the urethra

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98

Nephrectomy

Surgical removal of a kidney

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99

Nephrolithotomy

to cut into kidney in order to remove stones

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100

Nephropexy

surgical fixation of a kidney to anchor it in its normal anatomical position

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