CC Psych Exam 4

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The Charlie Hebdo cartoons, and the divisions they reveal

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The Charlie Hebdo cartoons, and the divisions they reveal

A Danish newspaper included a cartoon of the prophet muhamad with a bomb in his turban. This is extremely offensive as the prophet is not to be depicted and the cartoon itself was racist. Muslim ppl got rightfully angry but the cartoon was reprinted bc freedom of expression. What it okay to print the cartoons? Westerners say freedom of expression, Muslims say attack on faith, immoral.

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Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations

Published in 1996 Says that the fundamental source of conflict in the future would not be primarily ideological or economic but cultural and religious. Controversial thesis because the world is becoming more secularized.

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Secularization theory

As the world progresses and develops, and as science continues to advance, religious explanations for phenomena are being replaced with rational and scientific explanations. Religion is on the decline “God is Dead”

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Ethnocentrism and cross-cultural morality

Ethnocentrism is when people assume their own culture’s way of life is better or more natural than others’. It’s very hard for people to think in terms of morality outside their culture.

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Various ways to measure ‘quality of life

Which culture has the highest quality of life? We can measure positivity experiences, longevity, per-capita income, minimize inequality, low suicide rates, reproductive fitness, spiritual satisfaction, education, lower crime rates, cleanliness of environment, stability of families, # of Nobel prizes. So many indicators and different numbers for each one. Whoever is doing the ranking, whoever is on top.

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Kohlberg’s theory of universal moral development

Kohlberg maintained that cognitive abilities underlie moral reasoning and that those abilities progress and individuals develop, mature, and are educated. The way people decide what is right/wrong depend on the moral stage they reach.

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Stages of moral development

Level 1: The Preconventional Level, Level 2: Conventional, Level 3: Postconventional.

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Validity across cultures

The model is proposed to be universal because the levels always follow the same sequence. Americans and Zambians both hold true. Postconventional is not universal. Adults conventional, children preconventional. Western more sophisticated?

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The ethics of autonomy, community, and divinity

Kohlberg’s model is one of three codes of ethics inherent in Kohlberg’s model as an ethic of autonomy. (individual freedom and rights violations, personal choice, individual liberty.)

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Autonomy (ethic)

individual freedom and rights violations, personal choice, individual liberty.) An act seen as immoral under this directly hurts another person or infringes on their rights and freedoms.

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Community (ethic)

Emphasizes that people have duties pertaining to their roles in a community or social hierarchy. There is an ethical to uphold one’s interpersonal duties and obligations towards others, and failing to do so is considered morally wrong.

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Are obligations to others moral obligations?

To avoid the problem of different meanings for immoral and moral, researchers typically operationalize moral obligations to mean something specific something other than ppl’s understanding of the phrase. Moral obligations are different from responsibilities, viewed as objective obligations.

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objective and legitimately regulated

Ppl believe they have an obligation to act a certain way, even if there is no official rule or law that requires them to do so. If the obligation exists only when a law is present, then the obligation is perceived s a matter of convention and is not objective obligation.

Moral obligations are perceived as legitimately regulated. Ppl should be prevented from engaging in a moral violation, or they should be punished if they act in such a way.

  • If ppl feel someone should not be prevented from engaging in an act, they are viewing the matter as a personal choice and not a moral obligation.

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Miller study of ethical tradeoffs by Hindu and American students

Hindu Indian and American college students were asked what the ppl in the scenarios should do. (Steal train ticket to wedding or leave it?)

  • Indians are more likely to resolve a conflict by fulfilling their interpersonal obligations than Americans are. Indians more likely to view interpersonal breach of terms. (Steal the ticket more important than justice)

  • Americans don’t steal the ticket. Americans want to help as a personal choice.

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Divinity

Concerned with sanctity and the perceived natural order of things. This code contains the ethical principal that one is obligated to preserve the standards mandated by a transcendent authority.

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Haidt’s study of people in Philadelphia and Brazil- differences by SES

(Dead chicken sex meal) Presented to UPenn students. 23% said man is wrong for that. 27% man should be punished. Majority did not think immoral.

50% of high-status Brazilians viewed man as universally wrong. 56% felt man should be punished. roughly other half viewed as moral.

87% Low status Brazilians said behavior is universally wrong, 83% wanted punishment. majority of low status viewed man as BAD.

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Culture Wars

Culture war, completely different worlds have different morals (High SES vs low SES)

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Orthodox versus progressive “impulses”

Culture War in the US, impulses towards two diff mentalities. Orthodox believe transcendent authority, already set moral class. Should hold across all time. Independant of ppl.

Progressive = religions emphasize the importance of human agency in understanding and formulating moral code. Reject transcendent authority. Social code must change.

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Jensen study of Baptists

ethic of divinity close to orthodox conceptions of morality. Progressive = autonomy ethic, Orthodox = ethic of divinity.

American Baptists contrasted with mainland sects, asked a bunch of political/controversial questions. Found that progressives made decisions based on individual rights while orthodox valued ethic of divinity. Consistent in Hindu Indians

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5 Moral intuitions

guide one’s sense of right and wrong. (Under Schweder ethics) Avoiding Harm, Protecting Fairness, Loyalty to ingroups, respecting authority, achieving purity.

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Political Views

Conservatives tended to care strongly about all the codes while liberals mainly focused on avoiding harm and protecting fairness. Found in other cultures.

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Variations in moral intuitions

Can be shown in politics, fairly universal distinction between liberals and conservatives. Incentives like money.

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Motives for vegetarianism (Americans vs Hindus

North America Vegetarian = Liberal, (Avoiding harm, fairness.) India Vegetarian = Conservative (respecting authority, loyalty to ingroups, achieving purity.)

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Morality of thoughts

Are thoughts involuntary or voluntary and is thinking bad thoughts immoral? Are we responsible for thoughtss?

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The influence of religion on moral reasoning

Abrahamic religions have an effect of how religion effects how you categorize thoughts as immoral or moral

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Christian vs Jewish traditions

Jewish = thinking is not affected by morality, new testament Christianity = thinking bad = immoral

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Moralization of thought

LITERALLY IT DEPENDS IF UR RELIGION COMES FROM OLD OR NEW TESTAMENT. Pg. 487

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Role of faith versus behaviors

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Cohen study of Christian and Jews’ views

Protestants think that they have control over their thoughts while Jewish ppl don’t. Protestants think bad thoughts = bad behavior (thoughts control)

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Controllability of thought

If you can be held responsible for thoughts, it means you have control over them.

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Role of intentions, across cultures

The reason behind why you do things, if it’s immoral but unintentional--free pass.

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Lesson from the discovery of Autralopithecus afarensis footprints

Earliest evidence of bipedalism, feet resemble modern human feet who don’t wear shoes. Shoes from culture changed human feet (Chinese foot binding)

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Cultures shape bodies not just minds

Culture shapes the way we live and therefore bodies, cultural practices and mindsets have different effects.

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Always attend to who is the reference group

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Biological variability of humans

Innate biological differences and that come from the different pressures humans from diff parts of the world were subjected to.

Acquired Biological differences are during a human’s lifetime and due to their experiences.

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Genetic variation from selective pressures (arising from geography)

Selective pressures are according to location, specific traits have evolved across different parts of the world.

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Skin Color, Vitamin D and ultraviolet radiation, Others examples: climate, altitude, local pathogens

Browner skin protects against UVR, thus different skin tones across the globe, more protection near the equator. Climate influences. Able to thrive in high altitudes w low oxygen (Tibetans), Spaniards had more resistance to disease so easily conquered Incas.

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Cultural influences on the genome

Cultural factors can shape the genome, drinking milk for example. People w/o lactose interlernce tend to come from cultures that have domesticated cows the longest.

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Lactase persistence vs intolerance/nonpersistence

Adults who become lactose intolerant are lactase nonpersistent bc grew out from children. (Ancestral gene from Africa) But northern, European ppl developed lactase persistence by cattle domestication.

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Starch and amylase protein in saliva

(Long term diet changes) Ppl who come from agricultural societies eat more grain and therefore more starch, they developed higher amounts of the amylase protein in their saliva that helps digest starches.

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Yams, malaria, and sickle-cell anemia

Culture influence on genomes can be indirect. Yam farming made forests go away which increased bodies of water which invited mosquitos with malaria, the ppl in these regions developed a resistance to malaria over time. (Using sickle cell hemoglobin)

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Can genes for ‘race’ explain psychological variability across cultures?

No. Only 4% of genetic variability accounts for races. More variation between people of the same ethnicity. Genes don’t cluster well into racial groups.

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Evidence from immigrants

Immigrants share the same genetics as ppl from their heritage but live by different culture than the ppl who live in their heritage. There is definitely evidence that there are cultural factors that contribute to psychological differences.

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Acquired physical variation across cultures

Cross-cultural physical variations can exist independently of genetics.

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Underwater acuity among the Moken

Moken children get most of their food from the ocean, they have 2x more underwater visibility than European children, however, Euro children can be taught this ability so that means it’s not entirely genetic. Moken children are not trained, they develop the ability bc culture.

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Myopia

Nearsightedness, 42% of Americans have it, 80-90% of HS schoolers in East/Southeast Asia have it. (Both more than previous decades) Number of years schooling correlates with myopia. Lifestyle such as reading, video games, etc.

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Obesity and Diet

High calorie lifestyles like in the west contributed to high obesity rates. Cultural impact on biology not genetics. (larger portions etc)

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French Paradox

French cuisine is filled with more sugar, butter, and fat than America but still have lower rates of obesity but have higher levels of cholesterol than Americans. Rich fats + lower rates of heart disease = french paradox. Wine might explain why.

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Height

Income and Economy correlated with the heights of countries. When the Dutch economy was in a slump the men where shorter, but now Dutch men are taller than American men on average. A secure income leads to a healthier diet and therefore height. Cali Japanese taller than Japan Japanese.

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Culture and Sleep

Sleep used to be split in two periods instead of one long sleep, if you put American in the dark for 14 hrs they will revert to antient pattern. 8 hr sleep is healthy not universal.

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Variations across time and across cultures in timing, duration

Medieval English having two separate sleeps. Japanese and Japanese infant sleeping less than other countries, Dutch infants sleeping more, etc. Euro more than americas, more than Asian.

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The effect of SES on health

Higher SES = better health, lower SES = worse health

1)Access to health care \n 2) Riskier occupations \n 3) Less healthy habits (diet, smoking, sedentary)

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Classic English study

Studied civil servants over s 10 year period. Administration and powerful positions were 60% more likely to die, clerical staff were 120% more likely to die, and unskilled laborers were 170% more likely to die.

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Study in Burkina Faso

The Fulani, Mossi, and Rimaibe all live in Burkina Faso, an area where Malaria is prevalent. Mossi and Rimaibe have lived there for thousands of years so can resist disease. Fulani only moved there in the 19th century and have wear resistance--however they conquered the other two tribes and have a much higher SES. So they are less likely to get Malaria.

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Explanations (SES)

Lower SES = more unhealthy living,

1)Access to health care

  1. Riskier occupations \n 3) Less healthy habits (diet, smoking, sedentary)

  • Stress and lack of control.

  • Lower SES ppl are pessimistic about future and lead to more low SES ppl. (low SES leads to bad thoughts leads to more sickness)

  • Inadequate income can lead to bad decision making, more short term goals rather than long term.

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Income

As income increases morality decreases. True for men and women in the US.

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Differences in riskiness of occupations

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Differences in health-relevant habits

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Psychological Variables

  • Stress and lack of control.

  • Lower SES ppl are pessimistic about future and lead to more low SES ppl. (low SES leads to bad thoughts leads to more sickness)

  • Inadequate income can lead to bad decision making, more short term goals rather than long term.

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Pessimism and hostility

Ppl from low SES have more pessimistic thoughts and these thoughts are linked with higher chance of getting sick.

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Cognitive overload

Worrying about money all the time hurts your brain. Rash decision making more for short term than long term.

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Sugar cane farmers in India

Struggling before harvest and after harvest were sufficient with income, did better on cognitive tests after

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Stress and lack of control

More stress = more sickness, lack of control leads to stress and then leads to sickness. Low SES have more stress and less control. (more sick)

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Increased likelihood of health-compromising behaviors

Smoking, eating comfort food, riskier occupations, drug abuse.

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Weakens the immune system

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Perceive (experience) more threats

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Experience less control

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Classic Langer & Rodin study

Residents of old age homes were split into two groups, one with more control and one with way less. Group with more control were happier and lived longer on average.

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(stress) Also among other primates

In the hierarchy of monkeys, lower level primates experience more stress and side effects.

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Income inequality (subjective feelings of deprivation)

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OECD data

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Keralans vs poor Americans

keralans surrounded by poor, american not. kera live longer

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Correlation between life expectancy and GINI coefficient

as gini (income inequality) goes up, life expectancy goes down

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Ethnicity and Health

Illnesses and susceptibility are linked to ethnicity.

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Worse African American outcomes- hypertension example

AA don’t share hypertension genes w continental Africans, they are just more stressed.

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Latino ‘epidemiological paradox’

low SES but healthier and happier than we expect them to be

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Cross-cultural medical practices

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Variations in cultures’ theories on the origins of disease

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Metaphors for the healthy body

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Chinese (medical practices)

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French (Medical practices)

tonics and rest (construction site)

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US (Medical Practices)

Surgery and Dosage (Machine)

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Metaphors for the healthy body

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The case of hikikomoro

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What is a psychological disorder?

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Western views, historically (added in class)

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Medical model

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Biopsychosocial model

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Psychological disorders in different cultures

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Defining disorders: the example of dhat

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Culture-bound syndromes

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Eating disorders

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Bulimia nervosa

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Anorexia nervosa

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‘holy anorexia’

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Others: Koro; Ataques de nervios; Amok; Hysteria (skim only)

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Miscellaneous others (skim only)

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Universal syndromes

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Depression

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Somatization vs psychologization

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