PMTP: Introduction to Phlebotomy

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Laboratory Representative

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1

Laboratory Representative

Phlebotomists are called this because they have direct contact with patients

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Electrocardiography Department

This department does EKG

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Electrocardiogram

EKG stands for

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Electrocardiogram (EKG)

  • is a recording of impulses of the heart

  • trace records of a specific size and shape

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Electroencephalogram (EEG)

help locate and assess the extent of brain injury or determine if there is any brain activity

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Electroencephalography Department

This department does EEGs

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Electroencephalogram

EEG stands for

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Pharmacy Department

This department dispenses many types of therapeutic drugs that are often much potent than prescription taken at home

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Physical Therapy Department

This department works with patients who, due to disease or injury, are no longer able to fucntion their full physical capacity

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Physical Therapy

This therapy involve rebuilding deteriorated muscles after a long illness or learning to function after an amputation

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Occupational Therapy

Related to PT Department where patients work to overcome their physical handicaps so they can be productive again in ther old job or in a new one

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Speech Therapy

Related to PT Department where patients who have difficulty speaking or who have lost the ability to speak because of stroke or diseases are retaught how to speak again

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Radiology

This department used to just x-ray lungs or broken bones, now include cardiac catheterization, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound

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Computed Tomography scans

CT scan stands for

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRI stands for

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waiting-to-serve time

This single-skilled role for phlebotomist often results in times of no work and other times more work that can be done in a short time

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Centralized Phlebotomy

Approach in the health care facility where phlebotomists are dispatched from the lab to other areas of the hospital

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  • Surge of patients

  • Difficulty in blood collection

Phlebotomist runs like clockwork except for these two reasons

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Patient-focused care

Type of care where everyone who has contact with patients, needs to become MULTISKILLED

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Patient-focused care

The duties of hospital staff revolve more around the patient and the need to treat the patient quickly rather than being restricted to a specific job description

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  • The primary role is to collect blood as quickly as possible for accurate and reliable test results with the least discomfort

  • They are the KEY PLAYERS in the healthcare environment

  • "Laboratory Representative" because they come into close contact with patients (collection of samples)

  • They must be familiar with the organization and the environment (areas of the hospital)

  • Must maintain healthy relationships with the patients and other healthcare professionals/staff

  • Take multiple lab collections from morning to evening

  • Cross-trained in venipuncture, capillary puncture, patient care receptionists

  • Works in shift

  • Peaks in the early morning due to fasting samples (NPO)

Role of Phlebotomist

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Decentralized Phlebotomy

There is an increase in hemolyzed samples, patient identification errors, and contaminated blood cultures

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Venesection

  • used to reduce fever or induce a faint in mothers who are giving birth

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Cupping

  • A heated glass is placed on a person’s back, creating a suction that pulls blood to the capillaries under the cup

  • spring-loaded box with blades cut the area to produce massive bleeding

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Major throat infection

Disease of George Washington the led to his death

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Heavy bleeding

Thought to cure major throat infection/any illness

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middle of the 19th century

During this time, bloodletting was no longer considered as cure for all illness

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  • scarificator

  • blades

  • lancets

  • copper cup

  • led tourniquet

Ancient Phlebotomy Kit consists of

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  • Hereditary Hemachromatosis

  • Polythemia Vera

Modern application for Therapeutic Phlebotomy

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500 milliliters

How much blood is withdrawn through therapeutic phlebotomy

  • Hereditary Hemachromatosis

  • Polythemia Vera

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Centralized Phlebotomy

Phlebotomist is dispateched from the laboratory to other areas of the hospital

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Non per orem / Nothingn by mouth for fasting

NPO stands for

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10 to 12 hrs

Fasting time for Lipid Profile

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6-8 hours

Fasting time for Glucose Test

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12 to 16 hrs

Fasting time for water

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Pathology

Study of nature or cause of disease

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Phlebotomy

Act or practice of bloodletting as a therapeutic or diagnostic measure

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Postexamination (Postanalytical)

Process in which the results of the testing are communicated to the health provider

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Preexamination (Preanalytical)

All processes that it takes to collect the sample and get to the point in which the testing of the sample can occur

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Qualitative Analysis

The chemical analysis designated to identify the components of a substance

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Qualitative Analysis

The results from this analysis are released as a positive (present) or negative (not present) result

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Quality Assurance

Program that strives to have the health care facility guarantee that all areas are providing the highest quality and most appropriate level of care

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Quality Control

Methods to monitor processes and confirm that processes are within the preestablished limits

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Quality Improvement

Review and monitoring of outcomes to strive toward continuous improvement in performance

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Quantitative Analysis

The analysis of an event to determine the amount or proportions of the substance

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Quantitative Analysis

Results will be released as an amount, such as grams per liter

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Root Cause

Analysis of an event to determine the actual reason for the incident and corrective action needed to prevent recurrent

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Sentinel Event

An unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical and psychological injury

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Threshold

Acceptable level of performance

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Venipuncture

Collection of blood from a vein by penetrating the vein with a needle

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Phlebotomy

Process of collecting blood

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Phlebotomy

the act of practice of bloodletting as a therapeutic measure

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Venesection

  • sharp lancet-type instrument pierced the veind and made it bleef

  • was thought to eliminate the “bad” blood and remove the disease

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Advance Directive

Document stipulating the kind of life-prolonging medical care permitted for a patient

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Compatible

Substances that can be mixed without reacting with one another

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Decentralized Phlebotomy

Sample collection where all members of the healthcare team share responsibility to collect blood samples

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Demeanor

The outward behavior of an individual

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Esoteric

Type of laboratory tests that are not routinely

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Esoteric

These tests are often sent to another laboratory that specialized in a specific test

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Ethics

  • Professional code of conduct in the treatment of patients

  • Moral Philosophy

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Examination

All procedures that are done to perform the test(s) on the sample to achieve a result

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Failure

A case when the system does not meet user or customer expectations

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Administration

Keeps the hospital in compliance

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Electrocardiography (EKG)

Monitors patients with cardiovascular disease

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Electroencephalography (EEG)

Diagnosis of neurophysiological disorders

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Environmental Services

Maintains a clean facility

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Food Service (Dietary)

Provides diets to patients

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Gastrointestinal (GI) Laboratory

Diagnosed gastrointestinal disorders

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Laboratory

Provides testing of patient samples

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Medical Records

Maintains patient records

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Nursing

Provides direct patient care

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Occupational Therapy

Provides therapy to help mainain living skills

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Pharmacy

Dispenses drugs and advices on drug usage

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Physical Theraoy

Provides therapy to restore mobility

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Radiology

Uses imaging for diagnosis and treatment

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Respiratory Therapy

Provides therapy to evaluate the lungs

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Speech Therapy

Provides therapy to restore speech

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Coronary Care Unit

CCU stands for

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Coronary Care Unit

Increased care of the patient due to a heart condition

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Emergency Department

Emergency treatment of patients

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Geriatric

Elderly Patients

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Home Health Care

Follow-up care of a patient at home

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Intensive Care Unit

ICU stands for

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Intensive Care Unit

Increased care due to. the critical needs of the patient

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Neonatal

Newborn Care

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Nephrology

Patients in Dialysis

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Obstetrics

Patients in labor of childbirth

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Oncology

Patients with cancer

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Orthopedic

Patients with broken bones

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Pediatrics

Infants and children

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Recovery

Recover treatment of patients

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Hematology staff

  • studies blood cells and performs qualitative and quantitative analyses along with microscopic examination

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Complete Blood Cell count

CBC stands for

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CBC

is a routine test providing the physician with a large amount if valuable information about a patient’s state of health

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Coagulation/Hemostasis

is usually in the same area as hematology

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Coagulation/hemostasis

is the study of the clotting of blood

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Thrombosis

Disease where patients bleed too much or form clots too easily

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Administrative Office

  • Responds to telephone calls,

  • Handles specimen collection requests

  • Handles some specimens

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Phlebotomy

Collects samples from patients and processes sample for testing or transport

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Hematology

Studies the blood in normal and diseased states

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