A&P 1 Lab Practical 2

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions.

1 / 163

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

164 Terms

1

The interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions.

Depolarization

New cards
2

The specific period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability.

Repolarization

New cards
3

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which of the following channels will open?

Voltage-gated potassium channels

New cards
4

Which is by far the most common neuron type?

multipolar

<p>multipolar</p>
New cards
5

Which neuron would be found in the retina of the eye?

Bipolar

<p>Bipolar</p>
New cards
6

At which stage is the Na+ channel open?

B (hyperpolarization)

<p>B (hyperpolarization)</p>
New cards
7

Involved in activating fibers of a skeletal muscle such as the biceps muscle.

Diverging circuit

New cards
8

Maybe involved in complex, enacting types of mental processing

Parallel after-discharging circuit

New cards
9

some K+ channels remain open and Na+ channels reset

Hyperpolarization

New cards
10

In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier.

True

New cards
11

At which stage is the voltage approaching +30mV?

B (hyperpolarization)

<p>B (hyperpolarization)</p>
New cards
12

Which synapse will have the largest impact?

Axoaxonal

New cards
13

Which neurotransmitter is blocked by botulinum toxin?

Acetylcholine

New cards
14

At which stage are both sodium and potassium channels closing?

4 (D/Repolarization)

<p>4 (D/Repolarization)</p>
New cards
15

Which is channel is mechanically gated?

C

<p>C</p>
New cards
16

The term central nervous system refers to the ______.

Brain and spinal cord

New cards
17

Different types of sensory input can have the same ultimate effect.

Converging circuit

New cards
18

Which part of the image shows a chemically gated ion channel?

E

<p>E</p>
New cards
19

Which channel is B?

Chemically gated channel

<p>Chemically gated channel</p>
New cards
20

One incoming axon triggers responses in ever-increasing numbers farther and farther along the circuit.

Diverging circuit

New cards
21

Put the typical serial processing of a reflex arc in order from the initial stimulus

1. Receptor detection

2. Sensory neuron firing

3. Interneuron signaling

4. Motor neuron signaling

5. Effector activated

New cards
22

Receives stimuli

Dendrites

New cards
23

Nerve impulses leading to the brain carry information about cool temperatures on the skin. The nerve fibers sending these signals will most likely belong to which division o the nervous system?

Sensory (afferent) divison

New cards
24

The specific period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in the membrane permeability

Repolarization

New cards
25

Which neuron is multipolar?

<p></p>
New cards
26

Which part of the image shows calcium ions?

B

<p>B</p>
New cards
27

Which part of the image shows a synaptic vesicles?

C

<p>C</p>
New cards
28

At which stage is the Na+/K+ pump working most to restore membrane potential?

D

<p>D</p>
New cards
29

Nerve impulses leading to the skeletal muscle carry information to direct movement. The nerve fibers sending these signals will most likely belong to which division of the nervous system?

Somatic nervous system

New cards
30

Which part of the image shows the action potential?

A

<p>A</p>
New cards
31

At which stage are both sodium and potassium channels closing?

D (repolarization)

<p>D (repolarization)</p>
New cards
32

Processes all input information

Cell body

New cards
33

Which channel is a?

Voltage gated channel

<p>Voltage gated channel</p>
New cards
34

These cells in the CNS have cilia that move in order to circulate cerebrospinal fluid

Ependymal cells

New cards
35

Which part of the image shows calcium ions?

B

<p>B</p>
New cards
36

At which stage is the K+ channel open?

C (depolarization)

<p>C (depolarization)</p>
New cards
37

Voltage-gated Na+ channels open

depolarization

New cards
38

When a neurotransmitter like acetylcholine is acting in an excitatory manner which of the following is likely a result of the acetylcholine acting on the post synaptic cell?

Chemically gated sodium channels will open

New cards
39

Area where nerve impulse is generated.

Axon of hillock

New cards
40

Which part of the image shows the presynaptic membrane?

D

<p>D</p>
New cards
41

When a neurotransmitter like GABA is acting in an inhibitory manner which of the following is likely a result of the GABA acting on the postsynaptic cell?

Hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic cell membrane

New cards
42

The specific period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability

Repolarization

New cards
43

Which neuron is a sensory neuron found in a reflex arc?

unipolar (B)

<p>unipolar (B)</p>
New cards
44

What membrane is labeled b?

Endomysium

<p>Endomysium</p>
New cards
45

Which process requires ATP?

1. Sodium being removed from cytoplasm

2. Release Acetylcholine from synaptic vesicles

3. Myosin releasing form actin

4. Calcium storage in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

5. Reloading myosin head into active position

New cards
46

What pairs up with troponin proteins to form a complex that blocks muscle contractions?

Tropomyosin

New cards
47

The ___ is a modified form of endoplasmic reticulum that stores and releases calcium ions when a muscle contracts

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

New cards
48

What part of a myofibril is E?

M Line

<p>M Line</p>
New cards
49

What part of a myofibril is C?

I Band

<p>I Band</p>
New cards
50

Describe what should have been observed after adding activating solution to muscle sample

Before adding the activating solution, the muscle sample was long and relaxed. After adding the activating solution, there was a lot of movement in a very short amount of time. It was noted that the muscle sample appeared to have shrunk, losing its length. It was very hard to see specifically what was happening, but after doing some research, there were a few things that happened that were too fast to catch. The first was that the I bands shortened, pulling the Z discs closer to the M line. The second was noticing that there was no longer a H zone - it completely disappeared. The last was realizing that the A bands had moved closer to each other, even though their length had not changed. That was due to the I bands shortening.

New cards
51

Define a sarcomere

The distance from one Z disc to the next z disc

New cards
52

At which stage of the contraction cycle will a muscle cell remain in after death?

myosin will be attached to actin and unable to release

New cards
53

Define I-Band in a sarcomere

Part of sarcomere with only actin

New cards
54

What part of the myofibril is B?

H Zone

<p>H Zone</p>
New cards
55

___ are the proteins that appear as dark bands that mark the ends of the sarcomeres

Z lines

New cards
56

A rapid, very brief muscle contraction

muscle twitch

New cards
57

Muscle fibers designed for rapid and powerful responses

fast twitch muscle fibers

New cards
58

Calcium binds to this protein to initiate a contraction

Troponin

New cards
59

Protein that makes up the thin myofilament

Tropomyosin

New cards
60

Binds to troponin in the sarcomere to initiate muscle contraction

Calcium Ions

New cards
61

Covers the myosin-binding sites on actin

tropomyosin

New cards
62

Functions in the attachment of muscle to bone

tendons

New cards
63

Delivers the signals from the motor neuron to every sarcomere of the muscle cell

T tubules

New cards
64

Muscle fibers that are designed for endurance, contract slowly, and have a steady supply of energy

Slow twitch muscle fibers

New cards
65

Protein that makes up the thick myofilament

myosin

New cards
66

What structure is labeled D

Fascicle

<p>Fascicle</p>
New cards
67

Define the M line in a sarcomere

The center point where all myosin is bound together

New cards
68

What membrane is labeled A?

Epimysium

<p>Epimysium</p>
New cards
69

Propose what would happen to a sarcomere if ATP runs out, as in after death?

Each thick filament is composed of multiple myosin heads, which means that multiple cross-bridges form and break continuously during muscle contraction. Knowing this, it is extremely important for an abundance of ATP to be present in order to keep skeletal muscles healthy and working properly. Without ATP, it would be impossible for the myosin heads to detach from the actin-binding sites, which would leave the cross-bridges intact. This would mean that the muscles are fully contracted, leaving them stuck and stiff. This is known as rigor mortis - the muscles freeze and remain in the position that the person died in, making it extremely hard to reposition that person's body

New cards
70

Which of these structures is part of a muscle cell's plasma membrane that delivers signals to the sarcomere?

T tubule

New cards
71

Which of these junctions represents the connection between the tip of a neuron and a skeletal muscle cell from which acetylcholine diffuses?

neuromuscular

New cards
72

What part of the myofibril is D?

A band

<p>A band</p>
New cards
73

Define the A band in a sarcomere

Part of a sarcomere that incudes myosin from one end to the other

New cards
74

What structure is labeled C?

muscle fiber

<p>muscle fiber</p>
New cards
75

Define the Z disc in a sarcomere

the center point where all actin is bound together

New cards
76

What protein makes up the thin filament?

actin

New cards
77

A bundle of muscle cells is called a

fascicle

New cards
78

What part of the myofibril is A?

z- disc

<p>z- disc</p>
New cards
79

What components are needed during a muscle contraction?

Troponin, Myosin, Sodium entering cell, Calcium, ATP, Actin, Acetylcholine

New cards
80

What membrane is labeled E?

Perimysium

<p>Perimysium</p>
New cards
81

During a muscle contraction which band should not be changed in size?

A band

New cards
82

What does calcium bind to in a sarcomere?

troponin

New cards
83

The arrangement of muscles so that the action of one muscle is the opposite to that of its partner is referred to as ____

antagonistic

New cards
84

What covers up the actin binding sites?

Tropomyosin

New cards
85

What protein pulls on tropomyosin to expose actin binding sites?

Troponin

New cards
86

During muscle contraction which band should be reduced in size?

I band

New cards
87

Which of the following are protein filaments that function in muscle contraction and are shaped like a golf club with two heads?

myosin filaments

New cards
88

Which process does NOT require ATP?

1. Opening of sodium gates on a muscle cell

2. Closing of sodium gates on muscle cell

New cards
89

Interneurons receiving input from sensory neurons are located in the ________.

dorsal (posterior) horn

New cards
90

Which area that encloses the central canal

A

<p>A</p>
New cards
91

Where are the white fiber tracts connecting the two hemispheres?

A

<p>A</p>
New cards
92

The corpora quadrigemina are found in the _____.

midbrain

New cards
93

What letter shows the hypothalamus?

C

<p>C</p>
New cards
94

The brain area just anterior to the precentral gyrus that selects and sequences basic motor movements into more complex tasks.

Premotor cortex

New cards
95

What type of cells line the ventricles of the brain?

ependymal cell

New cards
96

This area on the extreme posterior of the occipital lobe receives visual information that originates on the retina of the eye

primary visual cortex

New cards
97

The _____ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus

diencephalon

New cards
98

The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the _____

reticular formation

New cards
99

What structure is C?

Globus pallidus

<p>Globus pallidus</p>
New cards
100

Visual centers for the control of heart rate, respiration and blood pressure are located in the ______

medulla oblongata

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 178 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(8)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 72 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 111676 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(533)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 64 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 174 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(11)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard193 terms
studied byStudied by 174 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 404 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)